SRG with German (eRosita) and Russian (ART-XC) X-Ray telescopes was launched by RosKosmos on July 13th of 2019 from Baikonur. During the flight to the L2 point of the Sun-Earth system, SRG performed calibrations and long duration Performance Verification (PV) observations of a dozen of targets and deep fields. Starting in the middle of December 2019, the SRG scanned the whole sky three times....

We experience a golden era in testing and exploring relativistic gravity. Whether it is results from gravitational wave detectors, satellite or lab experiments, radio astronomy plays an important complementary role. Here one can mention the cosmic microwave background, black hole imaging and, obviously, binary pulsars. This talk will concentrate on the latter and new results from studies of...

The fate of massive stars is influenced by the mass lost to stellar winds over their lifetimes, which limit the masses of the stellar remnants that they eventually produce. In this talk I will discuss our recent redetermination of the black hole mass in the X-ray binary system Cygnus X-1. At 21 solar masses, our measurement makes this the most massive dynamically-confirmed stellar-mass black...

A deep absorption in the 21-cm line of atomic hydrogen (HI), redshifted to the epoch of cosmic dawn (z ~ 20), was reported by the EDGES experiment. To explain that absorption trough it has been proposed that either an additional exotic cooling mechanism, or a brighter radio background emission previously unaccounted for is needed. Here we discuss the possibility that the required cosmic radio...

MAGIC is the pioneering imaging air Cherenkov telescopes (IACT) instrument, which started performing high-sensitivity measurements in the sub-200 GeV energy range, down to few 10s of GeVs. Since 2009 MAGIC is operating as a double system of 17m diameter IACTs for performing astrophysical measurements in the very high energy range 30GeV – 100TeV. In recent years, by using novel observation...

The development of the Einstein Field Equations is traced and it is argued that Einstein probably had included the cosmological constant in his field equations but then dropped it at first and later re-inserted it when he needed it for a static cosmological solution of his field equations. His initial derivation would have been geometrical, rather than field theoretic. The significance of this...

Ulugh Beg was the grandson of Tamerlane who conquered a vast area in Transoxania and Iran around 1400. Mohammad Taraghay, best known as Ulugh Beg (lit. “Grand prince”) was born in 1394 in Sultaniya (Zanjan, Iran). In 1409, he became the ruler of Samarkand where he founded a school in 1420 which is still well preserved there. Astronomy was the major subject taught in the school and Ulugh Beg...

We propose a new framework for studying the cosmology of f(R) gravity which completely avoids using the reconstruction programme. This allows us to easily obtain a qualitative feel of how much the ΛCDM model differs from other f(R) theories of gravity at the level of linear perturbation theory for theories that share the same background dynamics. This is achieved by using the standard model...

We consider the problem of asymptotic synchronization of different spatial points coupled to each other in inhomogeneous spacetime and undergoing chaotic Mixmaster oscillations towards the singularity. We demonstrate that for couplings larger than some threshold value, two Mixmaster spatial points $A,B$, with $A$ in the past of $B$, synchronize and thereby proceed in perfect unison towards the...

We investigate simplest composite quantum body – hydrogen atom – in a weak external gravitational field. Using the local Lorentz invariance of spacetime in general relativity, we calculate electron gravitational mass taking into account both kinetic and potential energies of electron in the atom. In addition to the expected change of electron mass due to total energy, we obtain the unexpected...

Current Lorentzian Spinfoams are formulated in terms of a two-complex with spins on faces and intertwiners on edges. In this talk, I discuss how to add a causal structure on wedges. The EPRL model turns out to be given by a sum over these wedge-causal structures. I will show how this sum can be restricted to a single causal configuration and its relation to Engle's proper vertex. [Based on...

We use the CMB, BAO, SN and galaxy weak lensing data to jointly reconstruct the effective dark energy density and the two phenomenological functions (mu and Sigma) describing possible modified gravity effects in the evolution of large scale structure. I will focus on the dependence of such reconstructions on the underlying assumptions (priors) and their implications for dark energy and...

In this talk we will consider several ways to use background radio radiation to learn about the large scale features of our universe as well as fundamental physics. In particular, we will highlight the power in cataloguing and understand a large number of Fast Radio Bursts and their background environments to learn about cosmology.

The last few years have witnessed a great enthusiasm for modified theories of gravity and particularly for scalar-tensor theories. The motivations to modify gravity are to test the limits of general relativity on the one hand and also to propose "answers" to open

questions of cosmology and astrophysics. In this context, many theories have emerged and a very complex landscape of theories...

In my talk I will introduce kappa-deformation of discrete symmetries and I will discuss its phenomenological consequences.

I will provide a critical review of what we learned from the NS-NS merger GW170817 during year of electromagnetic follow up across the spectrum. Specifically, I will focus on recent developments from our coordinated radio-X-ray monitoring campaign that revealed the emergence of a new component of emission.

In 2017, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the supermassive black hole M 87* at the center of the giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 using very-long baseline interferometry between a global network of radio telescopes. Operating at a high radio frequency of 230 GHz, EHT enables imaging of the optically thin emission region in the immediate vicinity of the event horizon of M 87*,...

We propose two models for constant density relativistic perfect-fluid spheres supported by thin shell configurations. These models are obtained from the Schwarzschild constant density star solution: the first via the collapse of the external layers of the fluid into a thin shell by performing a matching with the exterior Schwarzschild solution at a matching radius smaller than the star radius;...

The Hubble constant ($H_{0}$) is one of the most important parameters in

cosmology. Its value directly sets the age, the size, and the critical

density of the Universe. Despite the success of the flat $\Lambda$CDM model, the

derived Hubble constant from Planck data under the assumption of a flat

LCDM model has 4.4-$\sigma$ tension with the direct measurements. If this

tension is not due...

The canonical velocity-dependent one-scale (VOS) model for cosmic string evolution contains a number of free parameters which cannot be obtained ab initio. Therefore it must be calibrated using high resolution numerical simulations. We exploit our state of the art graphically accelerated implementation of the evolution of local Abelian-Higgs string networks to provide a...

Characteristic formulations of General Relativity are based on a null folliation of the spacetime. When combined with the standard Cauchy evolution they can in principle provide highly accurate waveform modelling. During this modelling process it is typical that the full non-linear Einstein field equations are solved numerically. A numerical solution to a PDE problem can converge to the...

The detections of gravitational waves are opening a new window to the Universe. The nature of black holes and neutron stars may now be unveiled, but gravitational radiation may also lead to exciting discoveries of new exotic compact objects, oblivious to electromagnetic waves. In particular, Advanced LIGO-Virgo recently reported a short gravitational-wave signal (GW190521) interpreted as a...

The detection of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is one of the main scientific targets pursued by the MAGIC collaboration since almost 20 years. The MAGIC telescopes were specifically designed for this purpose: the main figures of merit are the fast slewing speed (7deg/s), the low energy threshold (~50 GeV at zenith) and the high sensitivity in the low energy regime. These features make MAGIC one of...

I present a method to estimate H(z)/H_0 without assuming a cosmological model. The method employs the clustering of standard candles from future surveys like LSST. We find that LSST can constrain H(z)/H_0 up to z=0.7 with uncertainties, in the best cases, around 5%. The method can be further improved by including large galaxy surveys.

The isotope shifts (IS) in the frequency of an atomic transition are approximately linearly correlated with the shifts in another transition. This linearity is reflected in the so-called King-plot analysis. It has been suggested to search for deviations from linearity as a way to probe beyond-Standard-Model interactions mediated by light bosons [1]. These searches require availability of...

I will review the present status of massive and clustered PBH that may constitute all of the Dark Matter in the Universe.

In this talk, we shall present our studies of a recently-proposed model of spherically symmetric polymer black/white holes by Bodendorfer, Mele

and M\"unch (BMM), which generically possesses five free parameters. However, we find that, out of these five parameters, only three independent combinations

of them are physical and uniquely

determine the local and global properties of the...

Many accreting black holes in Nature are observed to have relativistic jets, and it has been suggested that the jets receive much of their power from the spin energy of the central black hole. There is considerable evidence in support of this idea from computer simulations of accretion flows. The talk will review some recent progress in this field.

Searching for fast radio bursts with MeerKAT will be discussed.

I will discuss two less-discussed, yet physically-motivated channels for EM counterparts of gravitational wave events: brief FRB-like signals from charged CBCs (especially binary black hole mergers and plunging neutron star - black hole mergers) and short-GRB-less X-ray transients. I will also discuss the physical processes that contribute to the delay timescale between CBC signals and their...

In relativistic quantum mechanics, the point spectrum of the Dirac Hamiltonian with Coulomb potential famously agrees with Sommerfeld's fine structure formula for Hydrogen. In the Coulomb approximation, the proton is assumed to only have an electric charge. However, the physical proton also appears to have a magnetic moment. The resulting hyperfine structure of Hydrogen is computed...

The joint observation of GW170817 and GRB 170817A has provided the long sought for conclusive evidence for the connection between binary neutron star mergers and short-hard gamma-ray bursts. Following an overview of the observation of GW170817 by the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration, and of the observations of GRB 170817A by Fermi-GBM and INTEGRAL SPI-ACS, this talk reviews the unambiguous...

We reconsider the thermodynamics of AdS black holes in the context of gauge-gravity duality. In this new setting where both the cosmological constant $\Lambda$ and the gravitational Newton constant $G$ are varied in the bulk, we rewrite the first law in a new form containing both $\Lambda$ (associated with thermodynamic pressure) and the central charge $C$ of the dual CFT theory and their...

I will review current cosmological applications of Type Ia Supernovae (SN Ia) to measure the Hubble constant and constrain the nature of dark energy, with an emphasis on the limiting factors in these measurements. I will describe how near-infared observations of SN Ia provide an alternate path for future supernova cosmology. Astrophysical systematic uncertainties arise from our lack of...

In recent years, there is a renewed debate about the origin of the observed prompt emission signal. Some authors found that synchrotron emission can dominate the spectra of several long bursts, and a recent analysis show that it may be possible to overcome the famous 'line of death' argument by a direct fitting procedure. On the other hand, several recent works showed that non-dissipative...

The Event Horizon Telescope collaboration has released 1.3mm interferometric observations of the core of the galaxy M87. I will review the observations and the general physical principles involved in their interpretation. After describing the basic heuristics needed to understand the effect of a black hole on the observational appearance of nearby emission, I will emphasize that...

Combined influence of linear boost and rotation of a black hole can distort an ambient magnetic field to the extent that magnetic field lines develop a neutral point, where the magnetic intensity vanishes. This purely geometrical effect interacts with the accretion flow that can carry and distort the frozen-in magnetic lines, too. Near the event horizon, the magnetic null is threaded by a...

We study the mode decomposition of the unitarily evolving wave packet constructed for the quantum model of spherically symmetric dust collapsing in marginally bound Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) model. We consider the model developed by Kiefer et al. [Phys.Rev.D 99 (2019) 12, 126010], where black hole singularity is replaced by a bounce from collapsing phase to expanding phase in the quantum...

Gravitational waves are usually described in terms of a transverse and traceless (TT) tensor, which allows to introduce the so-called TT coordinates. However, another possible approach is based on the use of a Fermi coordinates system, defined in the vicinity of the world-line of an observer arbitrarily moving in spacetime. In particular, Fermi coordinates have a direct operational meaning,...

The redshifted 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen is one of the most useful probes of the early universe. Several experiments are ongoing and are being planned to detect the signal from high redshifts. Detection of the signal will help in understanding the first stars in the Universe, the formation and evolution of galaxies and also constraining cosmological parameters. In this talk, we will...

We consider a class of exact solutions of Einstein's equations that describe a black hole mimicker for which the relativistic description would fail close to the horizon scale. We investigate how such an hypothetical object may be distinguished from a black hole via observations.

One of the challenges in numerical relativity is to include future null infinity in the computational domain with a well-posed formulation. Success will not only enable us to evolve any system of astrophysical interest, e.g. binary black holes and extracting the gravitational wave signal at future null infinity, with any desired accuracy, but also help in studying various phenomena of...

In 2017, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the black hole at the center of the giant elliptical galaxy, Messier 87 using very-long baseline interferometry between a global network of radio telescopes. The resulting linearly polarized images of the accretion flow near the horizon of the black hole (M 87*) show resolved polarized structure with a spiral pattern in the electric vector...

Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are amongst the most energetic objects in our Universe, but despite a number of plausible models, their origin remains a mystery. Thanks to recent advances using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) radio telescope we can now routinely localise FRBs to the galaxies they originate form, and in some cases even pinpoint the burst to a region within the...

We study the hydrodynamic representation of the Dirac equation in arbitrary curved space-times coupled to an electromagnetic field. Using a generalized Madelung transformation we derive an integral of the corresponding Bernoulli equation for ferminos and show the corresponding Bernoulli equation. Using the comparison of the Dirac and the Klein-Gordon equations we derive the balance equations...

The evolution of cosmic strings, in particular cosmic string loops, has been an open question for a number of years. The dynamics observed by field theory lattice simulations and by the Nambu-goto approximation do not agree, giving big differences in the lifetimes of loops, which for example affects their gravitational wave production.

In this talk we will discuss the results obtained from...

Despite substantial progress in theoretical modeling and numerical simulations over the past years, our understanding of the physical mechanism of Type Ia supernovae remains incomplete. This has two main reasons. (i) The progenitor systems from which these explosions arise have not been identified, and therefore the initial conditions for the explosion simulations are uncertain. (ii) Modeling...

The late time cosmic acceleration is one of the most puzzling phenomena in modern cosmology. Its modeling within General Relativity (GR) through the cosmological constant (L) results in the LCDM scenario. Although the latter gives a precise description of the Universe, it is known that it still contains a number of unresolved problems. These lead researchers to look for modified gravity...

Thermal evolution of neutron stars is studied in the $f(R)=R+\alpha R^{2}$ theory of gravity.

We first describe the equations of stellar structure and evolution for a spherically symmetric spacetime plus a perfect fluid at rest.

We then present numerical results for the structure of neutron stars using four dense matter equations of state and a series of gravity theories for

$\alpha$...

The second Bianchi identity is a well-known and fundamental differential identity which holds on any smooth (semi-)Riemannian manifold. In general relativity, due to the relation of the curvature tesnor and the energy-momentum tensor via the Einstein equations, this identity then naturally implies energy and momentum conservation for matter fields. What happens in situations where curvature...

Since their discovery in the late 1960s Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) emission has been deeply investigated with the help of the huge amount of data collected covering the entire electromagnetic spectrum. This large and broadband dataset was essential to constitute a general picture describing the GRB physics, revealing the most credible underlying physical processes and environmental conditions...

An interacting vacuum, with fixed equation of state w=-1, provides a simple model for dark energy in our Universe today, distinct from models with a varying equation of state. I will review the phenomenology of simple models where the vacuum can exchange energy and momentum with dark matter and consider the observational bounds on the interaction coming from the cosmic microwave background and...

Fuzzy dark matter (FDM) is a general term for the lightest possible dark matter particle. FDM is distinct from CDM in manifesting wavelike effects on cosmic scales, which lead to a vast array of methods to probe this model. Across more than 20 orders of magnitude, only two windows windows remain where FDM can constitute the entirety of the dark matter. I will discuss how these windows are...

This talk will report on recent progresses in the simulations of binary neutron star mergers in numerical general relativity with focus on the modeling of merger remnants and electromagnetic counterparts. Applications to the observations of GW170817 and AT2017gfo will be discussed.

Our cosmological discourse is currently dominated by the discrepancy between early and late-time cosmological probes. This tension, if confirmed, can only be resolved by yet unknown physics or by our lack of accounting for systematic uncertainties in the methods. Given the drastic implications of the former, the latter has been of great interest lately. In the context of time-delay strong...

Neutron star mergers have long been believed to drive short-duration gamma-ray bursts, one of the most powerful explosions in the universe. They have also long been believed to be a promising source of the r-process isotopes observed in the Milky Way. These two theories were violently validated in the observation of the first neutron star merger in gravitational waves. The electromagnetic...

In this talk I want to discuss the (unorthodox) scenario when the baryogenesis is replaced by a charge segregation process in which the global baryon number of the Universe remains zero. In this, the so-called axion quark nugget (AQN) dark matter model the unobserved antibaryons come to comprise the dark matter in the form of dense nuggets. In this framework, both types of matter (dark and...

The outcome of a binary neutron star depends sensitively on the mass of the binary and the equation of state of dense nuclear matter. All else being equal, lower mass binaries tend to produce rapidly rotating magnetar remnants that survive longer (if not indefinitely) before collapsing into black holes. I will discuss some of the implications of the resulting diversity imprinted by a range...

I will present recent developments on the geometric analysis of Einstein's field equations for spacetimes containing singularity hypersurfaces, which represent gravitational waves, shock waves, or phase interfaces. I will explain the formulation and classification of scattering laws and junction conditions at singularities, and will discuss bouncing cosmologies (big bang, big crunch). I will...

The Lorentzian EPRL spin-foam model has been shown to asymptote in an appropriate regime to a Regge-like theory of gravity. Analogous results have recently been obtained for the Conrady-Hnybida (CH) extension of the model, but several questions regarding the amplitudes of time-like triangles remain open. In this talk I will present new progress on the asymptotic analysis of such amplitudes, in...

The idea that, after their evaporation, Planck-mass black holes might tunnel into metastable white holes has recently been intensively studied. Those relics have been considered as a dark matter candidate. We show that the model is severely constrained and underline some possible detection paths. We also investigate, in a more general setting, the way the initial black hole mass spectrum would...

A minimal length is generally expected to result in Lorentz-violating dispersion relations. I show how one can formulate a lattice theory that carries a representation of the Poincaré group in the Brillouin zone, and discuss how light cones arise for a subalgebra of observables. [Based on work in collaboration with Bekir Baytaş and Pietro Donà]

Extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) are expected to be a key source of gravitational waves for the LISA mission. In order to extract the maximum amount of information from EMRI observations by LISA, it is important to have an accurate prediction of the expected waveforms. In particular, it will be necessary to have waveforms that incorporate effects that appear at second order in the mass...

The Planck Legacy Archive (PLA) hosts the products from the European Space Agency mission to study the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The PLA web interface (https://pla.esac.esa.int) directs the users to a wide variety of Planck products, e.g., time ordered data, CMB maps, frequency and astrophysical components maps (Dust, Synchrotron, Free-Free, CIB,..), source catalogues and other...

We apply cosmological reconstruction methods to *f(R,T)* modified gravity, in its recently developed scalar-tensor representation. We do this analysis assuming a perfect fluid in a Friedmann-Lemaı̂tre-Robsertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. Solutions with general scale factor, curvature parameter and equation of state are found for the energy density, pressure, and one of the dynamical fields of...

We develop new strategies to build numerical relativity surrogate models for eccentric binary black hole systems, which are expected to play an increasingly important role in current and future gravitational-wave detectors. We introduce a new surrogate waveform model, NRSur2dq1Ecc, using 47 non-spinning, equal-mass waveforms with eccentricities up to 0.2 when measured at a reference time of...

We present our studies on the neutrino pairs annihilation into electron-positron pairs ($\nu{\bar \nu}\to e^-e^+$) near the surface of a neutron star in the framework of extended theories of gravity. The latter modifies the maximum energy deposition rate near to the photonsphere and it might be several orders of magnitude greater than that computed in the framework of General Relativity. These...

We will present the extended DeWitt-Schwinger subtraction scheme [1] in order to consistently remove the divergent pieces of the one loop effective action for a scalar field in curved spacetime. This scheme includes a $\mu$ dependence that results in the running of the coupling constants. We will prove that this scheme is compatible with the decoupling of heavy massive fields in the low energy...

The 2017 Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of the core of the galaxy M87 are the first electromagnetic observations probing event horizon scales of a black hole. The data strongly favor an observational appearance dominated by a ring of approximately 40 micro-arcseconds in diameter. However, many interesting questions remain about the appearance of the source. In particular, the...

There has been significant progress in recent years on modelling the evolution of cosmic string and cosmic superstring networks. As we are targeting gravitational wave signals from strings, attention is shifting to the closed string (loop) component of those networks. The predicted signal depends on a number of parameters, some of which are assumed/argued to be of order unity. I will focus on...

Despite years of extensive research, the launching mechanism and the nature of relativistic jets remain open questions. Using 3D RMHD simulations of GRB jets with different initial magnetizations and engine modulation timescales, we calculate the resulting prompt emission light curves by considering photospheric emission and internal shocks, and compare them with observations. Our results show...

In this talk I will review the recent insights into the physics of black hole accretion and jets enabled by the advances in general relativistic numerical simulations. In particular, I will discuss how the jets form, collimate, accelerate, and interact with the ambient medium.

The weak equivalence principle is one of the cornerstone of general relativity. Its validity has been tested with impressive precision in the Solar System, with experiments involving baryonic matter and light. However, on cosmological scales and when dark matter is concerned, the validity of this principle is still unknown. In this talk I will show how relativistic effects in the large-scale...

The photon ring is a narrow ring-shaped feature, predicted by General Relativity but not yet observed, that appears on images of sources near a black hole. It is caused by extreme bending of light within a few Schwarzschild radii of the event horizon and provides a direct probe of the unstable bound photon orbits of the Kerr geometry. The precise shape of the observable photon ring is...

Over the past decade, population studies of fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been challenging to undertake due to the small number of known sources detected with different telescopes and detection pipelines. However, the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment Fast Radio Burst (CHIME/FRB) project has now detected a large sample of FRBs which is well suited for such studies. The first...

In the last few years, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been detected at Very High Energy (>100 GeV) gamma rays for the first time since their initial discovery half a century ago. This breakthrough occurred thanks to years of technical and strategic improvements (as well as a bit of good luck). In this talk, I will give an overview of the H.E.S.S. GRB program — how H.E.S.S. follows up GRBs, how...

Arrival-time operators (or observables) describing time-of-flight experiments are naturally constrained by gauge invariance requirements. Surveying the literature on time operators, including POVMs, I will show that a natural generalization of Aharonov-Bohm-Kijowski's arrival-time distribution (referred to as the ``standard arrival-time distribution'' by some authors) fails to be gauge...

The Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization anisotropy measurements have provided strong confirmation of the LCDM model of structure formation. Even if this model can explain incredibly well the observations in a vast range of scales and epochs, with the increase of the experimental sensitivity, a few interesting tensions between the cosmological probes, and anomalies in...

For a flat $\Lambda$CDM (standard) cosmology, a small sample of gravitationally lensed quasars with measured time delays has recently provided a value of the Hubble constant $H_0$ in agreement with data from SNe, but in tension with the Planck flat $\Lambda$CDM result. Identifying biases in some methods may solve this tension, avoiding hasty rejection of the standard cosmological model. As a...

It was found recently that the anisotropies in the homogeneous Bianchi~I cosmology considered within the context of a specific Horndeski theory are damped near the initial singularity instead of being amplified. In this work we extend the analysis of this phenomenon to cover the whole of the Horndeski family. We find that the phenomenon is absent in the K-essence and/or Kinetic Gravity...

We discuss the problem of formation of dark matter (DM) halos from the principle of maximum (coarse-grained) entropy, when including for the quantum nature of the DM particles. In the case of DM fermions, such a formation mechanism involves for (long-range) particle-particle interactions, and can lead to a most-likely phase-space distribution accounting for the Pauli-principle as well as...

The next decade of Universe exploration is expected to undergo a revolution for the transient astrophysics. The third generation of gravitational-wave (GW) observatories, such as Einstein Telescope (ET) and Cosmic Explorer (CE) will allow us for the first time to observe GWs along the cosmic history back to the cosmological dark ages. These observatories will be an unprecedented resource to...

A local population of faint short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with late afterglow onset and bright optical kilonova was revealed by the discovery of the first binary neutron star merger GW170817/GRB170817A. In our work we investigate whether similar nearby (<200 Mpc) events were observed by NASA's Neil Gehrels Swift observatory. We selected all the events not associated to any X-ray or optical...

Gaia directly measures the kinematics of the stellar component of the Galaxy with the goal to create the largest, most precise three-dimensional map of the Milky Way (MW).

The very core of the Gaia data analysis and processing involves General Relativity (GR) to guarantee accurate scientific products. Nevertheless, any Galactic model should be developed consistently with the...

The interaction of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons with hot electron gas in Galaxy Clusters and surrounding medium can be detected through the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect. When this effect is detected with high enough angular resolution (~10'') it allows astrophysicists to study the physics of galaxy clusters, relaxed and non-relaxed clusters, and detect filamentary structures...

We study some consequences of the loop quantization of the outermost shell in the Lema\^itre–Tolman–Bondi (LTB) dust spacetime using different quantization strategies motivated by loop quantum gravity. Prior work has dealt with this loop quantization by employing holonomies and the triads, following the procedure in standard loop quantum cosmology. In this work we compare this quantization...

We present new results on the singularity structure and asymptotic analysis of a brane-world that consists of a flat 3-brane embedded in a five-dimensional bulk. The bulk matter is modelled by a fluid that satisfies a non-linear equation of state of the form $p=\gamma\rho^{\lambda}$, where p is the ‘pressure’ and $\rho$ is the ‘density’ of the fluid. We show that for appropriate ranges of the...

The theory of causal fermion systems is an approach to fundamental physics. It gives quantum mechanics, general relativity and quantum field theory as limiting cases and is therefore a candidate for a unified physical theory. The dynamics of causal fermion systems is described by a variational principle called the causal action principle (for more details see...

According to the axial vortical effect, an axial current $J^\mu_A$ is produced in a fluid undergoing a macroscopic vortical motion, which is equal to the local kinematic vorticity $\omega^\mu$ multiplied by the axial vortical conductivity $\sigma^\omega_A$. We probe the curvature corrections to $\sigma^\omega_A$ by computing the thermal expectation value of $J^\mu_A$ with respect to a...

The unprecedented coincident detection of a short gamma-ray burst (GRB) with gravitational waves from a binary neutron star (BNS) merger in GW170817/GRB170817A, followed by the long-lasting broadband afterglow, put our understanding of the structure of GRB jets to the test. GRB170817A turned out to be a particularly interesting event, due to its nearby distance (~40 Mpc) and emission from an...

As detections of mergers of compact bodies begin to flow in, and as we enter an era of precision GW measurements, our understanding of compact bodies, their physics and that of the surrounding astrophysical environment, will continue to grow and at times even be challenged. The need to revise the mass bounds of compact bodies such as BHs and NSs and the possibility of the existence of GW...

Neutron stars in scalar-tensor theories may undergo spontaneous scalarization, which is important for probing the theories with binary pulsar and gravitational wave observations. Since the effect is nonlinear, most studies of spontaneous scalarization were carried out numerically. In the first part of my talk, I explain how one can compute the effect of scalarization analytically based on a...

Although the LCDM model is very successful in explaining current cosmological observations, in light of numerous tensions between data and theory, it is worth investigating the evolution of perturbations in alternative models, especially in the non-linear regime, where future surveys will provide a wealth of data. In this talk I will derive the relevant equations necessary to describe matter...

Major advancements in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have arisen in the last few years thanks to the recent detections at very high energy (VHE). In this contribution, the observation of GRB 190829A at VHEs with H.E.S.S. is presented. This GRB is one of the closest-ever detected with a redshift z~0.08, a characteristic that allowed an extended temporal detection from 4 hours to 56 hours...

The first image of the black hole (BH) M87* obtained by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has the shape of a crescent extending from the E to WSW position angles, with a possibly distinct bright hotspot in the ESE sector. We have explored highly simplified toy models for geometric distribution and kinematics of emitting regions in the Kerr metric, assuming that the BH spin vector is fixed to...

Cosmic strings may have formed in the early universe due to the Kibble mechanism. While string networks are usually modeled as being of Nambu-Goto type, this description is understood to be a convenient approximation, which neglects the typically expected presence of additional degrees of freedom on the string worldsheet. Previous simulations of cosmic strings in expanding universes have...

Black holes formation and evolution have been extensively studied at the classical level. However, not much is known regarding the end of their lives, a phase that requires to consider the quantum nature of the gravitational field. A black-to-white hole transition can capture the physics of this phenomenon, in particular the physics of the residual small black holes at the end of the Hawking...

The GRAVITY collaboration has recently a detected continuous circular relativistic motion during infrared flares of Sgr A*, which has been interpreted as orbital motion near the event horizon of a black-hole. In this work, we use the ray-tracing code GYOTO to analyze the possibility of these observations being consistent with a central bosonic star instead of a black-hole. Our model consists...

We report on our progress of an improved test of local Lorentz invariance (LLI) in the electron-photon sector using the highly sensitive meta-stable electronic $F$-state of the $^{172}$Yb$^{+}$ ion [1].

The Zeeman structure of the $F$-state contains two orthogonally oriented orbitals which gives us access to test LLI violation. To suppress the magnetic field noise during the measurement,...

In this talk, I will present my work on cosmography with strong-lensing in galaxy-clusters observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. I will detail some particular aspects of the analysis, in preparation for future surveys like Euclid and CSST.

What the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are, whether they are Chandrasekhar mass or sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs, has been matter of debate for decades. Various observational hints are supporting both models as the main progenitor. In this talk, I will review the explosion physics and their chemical abundance patterns of SNe Ia from these two classes of progenitors. I will...

We introduce a novel way of measuring H0 from a combination of independent geometrical datasets, namely Supernovae, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations and Cosmic Chronometers, without the need of calibration nor of the choice of a cosmological model. Our method builds on the distance duality relation which sets the ratio of luminosity and angular diameter distances to a fixed scaling with redshift,...

In this talk, I will discuss a cosmological model with dark energy – dark matter interaction. Demanding that the interaction strength $Q_{\nu}$ in the dark sector must have a field theory description, a unique form of interaction strength can be obtained. I will show the equivalence between the fields and fluids for the $f(R,\chi)$ model where $f$ is an arbitrary, smooth function of $R$ and...

Photospheric emission from relativistic outflows may originate in two different regimes: photon decoupling within the outflow or radiative diffusion. I will discuss observed thermal component in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts as emission from such diffusive photospheres. In addition, I will discuss implications of photon diffusion for dissipative models of GRBs.

Apertif, the wide-field receiver system currently operating on the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, offers an unprecedented combination of sensitivity and speed at 1.4 GHz. Its time-domain supercomputing back end (ARTS) performs real-time detection and localisation of Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs). In stand-alone mode, this SKA pathfinder is already the globally most productive 1.4 GHz FRB...

The first imaging of the super massive black hole in M87 by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has marked the beginning of a new era in black hole research that explores the properties through direct image observations. In particular, polarimetric images of the vicinity of black holes have attracted much attention because they reflect the magnetic field structure, which plays a key role in the...

The LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment (LARASE), funded by the National Scientific Committee 2 (CSN2) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) in the years 2013-2019, had among its main objectives that of verifying the gravitational interaction in the weak-field and slow-motion limit of General Relativity. Three geodynamic satellites: LAGEOS (NASA, 1976), LAGEOS II...

I will discuss the general aspects of the Analytic Infinite Derivative (AID) gravity theories. It will be shown in details why an infinite number of derivatives is required to eradicate ghosts. Explicit ghost-free construction will be presented. Then it will be explained how unitarity is maintained in this non-local setup upon accounting loop corrections. Observational aspects will be briefly touched.

AT2017gfo is the first kilonova (KN) that could be extensively monitored in time both photometrically and spectroscopically. Moreover, it is the first optical counterpart of a gravitational wave source and it is associated with the short gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A. Here I present our search for the fingerprints of AT2017gfo-like kilonova emissions in the optical/NIR light curves of 39 short...

A kilonova signal is generally expected after a Black Hole - Neutron Star merger. The strength of the signal is related to the Equation of State of neutron star matter and it increases with the stiffness of the latter. The recent results obtained by NICER suggest a rather stiff Equation of State and the expected kilonova signal is therefore strong, at least if the mass of the Black Hole does...

The thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect is produced by the inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons by hot electrons, particularly in galaxies clusters. It has been used as a powerful probe to constrain the cosmological parameters, given its particular sensitivity to sigma8 and omega_m.

We present a new all-sky tSZ map constructed from the latest Planck PR4...

Can the 32C-dimensional algebra R(x)C(x)H(x)O offer anything new for particle physics? Indeed it can. Here we identify a sequence of complex structures within R(x)C(x)H(x)O which induces a cascade of breaking symmetries: Spin(10) -> Pati-Salam -> Left-Right symmetric -> Standard model + B-L (both pre- and post-Higgs-mechanism). These complex structures derive from the octonions, then from the...

The long-awaited detection of a gravitational wave from the merger of a binary neutron star in August 2017 (GW170817) marked the beginning of the new field of multi-messenger gravitational wave astronomy. Reaching densities a few times that of nuclear matter and temperatures up to 100 MeV, such mergers also represent potential sites for a phase transition from confined hadronic matter to...

Gravitational-wave(GW) sources can serve as standard sirens to probe cosmology by measuring their luminosity distance and redshift. Such standard sirens are also useful to probe theories beyond General Relativity with a modified GW propagation. Previous studies on the latter assume multi-messenger observations so that the luminosity distance can be measured with GWs while the redshift is...

Following the method presented in the talk "Extended DeWitt-Schwinger subtraction scheme, heavy fields and decoupling [1]", we consider the renormalization of the one loop effective action for the Yukawa interaction with a background scalar field in curved spacetime [2]. We compute the beta functions and discuss the decoupling in the running of the coupling constants. For the case of a...

A cosmological model with Symmetric Teleparallel Gravity where gravity is non-metrical is constrained with redshidt space distortions data. The cosmological background for the model mimics a ΛCDM evolution but differences arise in the perturbations. The linear matter fluctuations are numerically evolved and the study of the growth rate of structures is analysed in this cosmological setting....

Radio-loud quasars (RLQs) are typically more X-ray luminous, by a factor of 2-20, than matched radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). This excess X-ray emission has generally been attributed to small-scale jets. To determine the nature of this excess X-ray emission, we have constructed a large, uniform sample of 729 optically selected RLQs with high fractions of X-ray detections and radio-slope...

Recent detections of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at energies above 100 GeV demonstrate that imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT) operating in the very high energy range (VHE; E > 100 GeV) can provide insight into the physics of GRBs. By searching for the highest-energy photons emitted by GRBs, these telescopes can help answer questions about the particle acceleration and emission...

We develop a systematic approach to obtain spherically symmetric midisuperspace models with modifications inherited from loop quantum gravity. We obtain a family of effective constraints that satisfy Dirac's deformation algebra and show that (scale-dependent) holonomy corrections can be consistently implemented in the presence of matter with local degrees of freedom. These deformed...

A method will be presented which allows for the numerical computation of the stress-energy tensor for a quantized massless minimally coupled scalar field in the region outside the event horizon of a 4D Schwarzschild black hole that forms from the collapse of a null shell. This method involves taking the difference between the stress-energy tensor for the $in$ state in the collapsing null shell...

The progenitor scenarios of Type Ia supernovae remain a mystery having a crippling effect on the many area that have strong connections to these explosive events (e.g. cosmology, chemical evolution of the Universe, stellar evolution, etc.). The current viable scenarios can be divided into two broad categories: 1) 1.4 M$_\odot$ white dwarves that are likely created in an accretion process and...

It is common to express cosmological measurements in units of Mpc/h. Here, I review some of the complications that originate from this practice. A crucial problem caused by these units is related to the normalization of the matter power spectrum, which is commonly characterized in terms of the linear-theory rms mass fluctuation in spheres of radius 8 Mpc/h, σ8. This parameter does not...

We derive the effective polymer Hamiltonian of gravitational waves propagating on an FLRW background. We overcome the problem of polymerizing a time-dependent system by using a novel approach by using the extended phase space approach. Using the resulting Hamiltonian, we study some of the possible observational consequences of such a polymerized gravitational wave Hamiltonian.

In this talk, I will present some recent results on estimating the performance of quantum optomechanical sensors for searches of modified gravity. Specifically, I will show how we derive the best possible bounds that can be placed on Yukawa- and chameleon-like modifications to the Newtonian gravitational potential with a cavity optomechanical quantum sensor. We do so by modelling the effects...

Strongly lensed supernovae (SNe) are emerging as a new probe of cosmology and SN progenitors. The time delays between the multiple images of a lensed SN can be used to determine the Hubble constant (H0) that sets the expansion rate of the Universe. An independent determination of H0 is important to ascertain the possible need of new physics beyond the standard cosmological model, given the...

The quest for high redshift FRBs is ongoing with telescopes such as FAST and GBT looking for highly dispersed events. If FRB-producing systems exist at early times, such sources would provide new unique ways to probe Cosmic Dawn and Reionization. On one hand, FRB dispersion would allow us to probe the history and topology of Reionization. On the other hand, number counts of high redshift FRBs...

We study the axion strings with the electroweak gauge flux in the DFSZ axion model and show that these strings, called the electroweak axion strings, can exhibit superconductivity without fermionic zero modes. We construct three types of electroweak axion string solutions. Among them, the string with W-flux can be lightest in some parameter space, which leads to a stable superconducting cosmic...

Making a high resolution image of a supermassive black hole shadow is a direct method to verify the theory of general relativity at extreme gravity conditions. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations at millimeter/sub-millimeter wavelengths can provide just provide angular resolution sufficient to start resolving supermassive black holes, located in Sgr A* and M87. Recent VLBI...

Radio afterglows of neutron star mergers are excellent probes of the fast ejecta (relativistic jets and fast tail of the dynamical ejecta) and provide strong constraints on the inclination angle, ejecta morphology and energetics. This information is complementary to the ejecta mass and composition derived from the early-time UV-optical-infrared emission (called the kilonova/macronova). Radio...

The application of numerical techniques to covariant LQG may able to provide answers to many of the current open questions in theory. In this presentation, I first introduce the formalism currently used to implement numerical computations. I illustrate a recent application of numerical techniques concerning the study of divergences in the EPRL self-energy amplitude, on which so far there were...

I review in this talk the mechanism of Primordial Black Hole (PBH) formation at the end of inflation from an oscillating scalar field. I will first present solutions to the Klein Gordon and Einstein equations in this regime for linear perturbations, as well as long-wavelength nonlinear solutions. I argue that these are indicators of the collapse of inhomogeneities onto PBHs. The tiny black...

A class of naked strong curvature singularities is ruled out in Bakry-Emery spacetimes by using techniques of differential topology in Lorentzian manifolds.

These spacetimes adimit a Bakry-Emery-Ricci tensor which is a generalization of the Ricci tensor. This result supports to validity of Penrose's strong cosmic censorship conjecture in scalar-tensor gravitational theories, which include...

The largest temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the dipole. The simplest interpretation of the dipole is that it is due to our motion with respect to the rest frame of the CMB (with debate over the possibility of alternative explanations). As well as creating the $\ell=1$ mode of the CMB sky, this motion affects all astrophysical observations by modulating and...

We propose a new approach to the thermodynamics of scalar-tensor gravity and its possible ``diffusion'' toward general relativity, previously regarded as an equilibrium state in spacetime thermodynamics. The main idea is describing scalar-tensor gravity as an effective dissipative ﬂuid and applying Eckart’s first order thermodynamics to it. This gives explicit effective quantities: heat...

A rapidly spinning compact object couples to an ambient curved background via the so-called spin-curvature coupling. In expressing this, one has to deal with the ambiguity of the definition of the center of mass of the body. What is worse, in a Hamiltonian formalism, this choice corresponds to an unphysical "parasitic" degree of freedom in the dynamical system. A solution to this is to apply a...

Dark matter scenarios are being tested at the LHC in the general-purpose experiments through *promptly* decaying states. In parallel, new dedicated detectors have been proposed for the LHC to probe dark matter portal theories predicting *long-lived* particles that decay away from the interaction point: MoEDAL-MAPP, MoEDAL-MALL, FASER, CODEX-b, MATHUSLA, AL3X, ANUBIS, milliQan. In addition, the...

We provide a method to calculate the rate of false vacuum decay induced by a black hole. The method uses complex tunnelling solutions and consistently takes into account the structure of different quantum vacua in the black hole metric via boundary conditions. We illustrate the technique on a two-dimensional toy model of a scalar field with inverted Liouville potential in an external...

We present the first numerically stable nonlinear evolution for the leading-order gravitational effective field theory (Quadratic Gravity) in the spherically-symmetric sector. The formulation relies on (i) harmonic gauge to cast the evolution system into quasi-linear form (ii) the Cartoon method to reduce to spherical symmetry in keeping with harmonic gauge, and (iii) order-reduction to...

Physical reasoning give expressions for the Hamiltonian of a system. These Hamiltonians are differential operators that are mostly symmetric in a densely defined domain.

However, to study the dynamics of the unitary group corresponding to a Hamiltonian, it is

required that the Hamiltonian be self-adjoint or essentially self-adjoint. I will present our study

on how the static non-linear...

The spectra of the optical/near-IR counterpart of the GW2017 binary neutron star merger show broad absorption features overimposed onto the continuum, that were interpreted as due to heavy elements formed through r-process nucleosynthesis. However, it is very arduous to identify individually the atomic species, owing essentially to the enormous amount of atomic transitions and to substantial...

Observational measurement of the black-hole spacetime is one of the essential topics in modern physics and astrophysics, since it will lead to a critical test of the theory of general relativity. In general relativity, the spacetime around is uniquely determined by its mass and spin parameter. The mass can be accurately measured by observing orbits of stars or gas dynamics inside the sphere of...

Neutron stars are ideal astrophysical sources to probe general relativity due to their large compactnesses and strong gravitational fields. For example, binary pulsar and gravitational wave observations have placed stringent bounds on certain scalar-tensor theories in which a massless scalar field is coupled to the metric through matter. A remarkable phenomenon of neutron stars in such...

As the new era of GW-led multi-messenger astronomy is ushered in, one may especially expect to catch GW signals from neutron star-black hole (NSBH) mergers and search for associated as-yet undiscovered NSBH kilonova emissions. However, in spite of many efforts for follow-up searches of potential NSBH candidates during the third run (O3) of LIGO/Virgo Collaboration (LVC), no surely EM...

"Dark energy", a matter/energy source whose nature is still not well understood, is widely assumed as an explanation for the observed accelerated expansion of the Universe. The standard model of cosmology, the ΛCDM model, consists of the simplest scenarios in which dark energy is a cosmological constant. Even though it provides an impressive fit to the available cosmic background radiation and...

Satellites and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) have shown that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are capable of producing very-high-energy photons— most notably GRB 190114C, observed up to 1 TeV by the MAGIC telescopes approximately one minute after triggering the Fermi GBM and Swift BAT satellites. Particularly suited to such searches and follow-up studies is the High-Altitude Water...

The interior of a Schwarzschild black hole is quantized by the method of loop quantum gravity. The Hamiltonian constraint is solved and the physical Hilbert space is obtained in the model. The properties of a Dirac observable corresponding to the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass of the Schwarzschild black hole are studied by both analytical and numerical techniques. It turns out that zero is not in...

The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) cosmic ray detector on the International Space Station (ISS) has been in operation since its launch in 2015.

The main instrument, the CALorimeter (CAL), is monitoring the gamma ray sky from ~1 GeV up to ~10 TeV with a field-of-view of about 2 sr for more than five years.

In this paper, we describe the analysis of gamma ray candidate events observed...

The emergence of $R^2$ (Starobinsky) inflation from the semi-classical modification of gravity due to matter quantum fields clearly points out the importance of fundamental physics and the first principles in the construction of successful cosmological models. Along with the observational success, $R^2$ gravity is also an important step beyond general relativity (GR) towards quantum gravity....

Type Ia supernovae (SNe) are some of the most common cosmic transients, yet their progenitors are still not known. I will discuss the sub-Chandrasekhar mass pathway to these explosions, known as the double detonation scenario, where a White Dwarf (WD) is able to explode below the Chandrasekhar mass limit through the aid of an accreted helium shell. An ignition of this helium can send a shock...

The Lewis solutions describe the exterior gravitational field produced by infinitely long rotating cylinders, and are useful models for global gravitational effects. When the metric parameters are real (Weyl class), the metrics of rotating and static cylinders are locally indistinguishable, but known to globally differ. The significance of this difference, both in terms of concrete physical...

In the standard cosmological scenario, no circular polarization is predicted for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. However, in the frame of moving particle, Lorentz symmetry can violate and lead to circular polarization for CMB radiation. We estimate the circular polarization power spectrum $C_l^{V(S)}$ in CMB radiation due to Compton scattering in presence of the Lorentz symmetry...

In the QCD axion dark matter scenario with post-inflationary Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking, the number density of axions, and hence the dark matter density, depends on the length of string per unit volume at cosmic time $t$, by convention written $\zeta/t^2$. The expectation has been that the dimensionless parameter $\zeta$ tends to a constant $\zeta_0$, a feature of a string network known as...

Context. We study eight different gamma-ray burst (GRB) data sets to examine whether current GRB measurements — that probe a largely unexplored part of cosmological redshift (z) space — can be used to reliably constrain cosmological model parameters.

Aims. We use three Amati-correlation samples and five Combo-correlation samples to simultaneously derive correlation and cosmolog- ical model...

The two-point function for a massless minimally coupled scalar field in the Unruh state is computed for various examples of 1+1 dimensional black holes. It is found that for spacelike separations of the points the two-point function grows linearly in terms of a time coordinate that is well-defined on the future black hole horizon, and for Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes is also...

One problem of the ΛCDM model is the tension between the S8 found in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments and the smaller one obtained from large-scale observations in the late

Universe. The σ8 quantifies the relatively high level of clustering. Bayesian Analysis of the Redshift

Space Distortion (RSD) selected data set yields: S8 = 0.700+0.038

−0.037. The fit has 3σ tension with...

Galaxy cluster strong lensing has numerous applications in cosmology. Thanks to the wealth of multi-wavelength observations of clusters using state-of-the-art observatories, such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the Very Large Telescope, this field is providing significant contributions to the understanding of our Universe. One of the main points that are still not fully understood is the...

MoEDAL-MAPP is a pioneering experiment designed to search for highly ionizing (HIP), feebly interacting (mQP) and long-lived particle (LLP) avatars of new physics in p-p and heavy-ions collisions at the LHC. The MoEDAL baseline detector first took data at LHC’s Run-2. This detector was dedicated to the search for HIPs, such as magnetic monopoles or massive (pseudo-)stable charged particles,...

In this talk, I will present the main features of the solutions to a recently-derived set of dynamical equations that governs the effective dynamics of black holes in loop quantum cosmology which were obtained via a revision of the Hamiltonian calculation underlying the Ashtekar-Olmedo-Singh black hole model. I will analyze the possibility that certain quantum parameters are treated as Dirac...

Spinning black holes have long been suspected to be involved in some of the most extreme astrophysical phenomena such as AGN and their relativistic jets for supermassive black holes, and gamma-ray bursts for stellar-mass black holes. The activity of black holes is often associated with the creation and the launching of a relativistic magnetized plasma jet accompanied by efficient particle...

I will discuss recent analytic results on the stationary accretion of the relativistic collisionless Vlasov gas onto a moving Schwarzschild black hole. The model assumes that the gas obeys the Maxwell-Juttner distribution at infinity. The Vlasov equation is solved formally in terms of suitable action-angle variables in the framework proposed originally by Rioseco and Sarbach. Depending on the...

We present the first application of a hierarchical Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) follow-up on continuous gravitational-wave candidates from real-data searches. The follow-up uses an MCMC sampler to draw parameter-space points following the F-statistic. As outliers are narrowed down, coherence time increases, imposing more restrictive phase-evolution templates. We introduce a novel Bayes...

The connection between binary neutron star mergers and short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) was solidified by the simultaneous detection of GW170817 and GRB 170817A. These events were followed by bright kilonova emission arising from the radioactive decay of freshly synthesized r-process ejecta, which were expelled during the neutron star merger. Kilonova emission is a fundamental signature of...

A first approximation to describe the interplay between quantum matter and gravity can be obtained in the quantum field theory on curved spacetimes by studying the back-reaction of a quantum field on the spacetime geometry, using the so-called semiclassical Einstein equation. In this framework, the evaporation of four-dimensional spherically symmetric dynamical black holes can be explained by...

In this work we study the local behavior of geodesics in the neighborhood of a curvature singularity contained in stationary and axially symmetric space-times. Apart from these properties, the metrics we shall focus on will also be required to admit a quadratic first integral for their geodesics. In particular, we search for the conditions on the geometry of the space-time for which null and...

The primordial abundance of lithium is still a subject of controversy, given the disagreement between numerical results and observational estimates. We show how this discrepancy can be undestood in the context of variation of fundamental constants at the epoch of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. The variation of Newton's constant plays a crucial role. In particular, its interpretation in terms of...

A burst of gravitational waves creates a permanent change in separation between two initially comoving test particles; this is known as the gravitational wave memory effect. Near null infinity, two contributions to the memory effect arise: linear memory, which appears in linearized gravity and is due to changes in conserved quantities, and nonlinear memory, which arises due to the nonlinear...

Quantum gravity effects are traditionally tied to short distances and high energies. In this talk I will argue that, perhaps surprisingly, quantum gravity may have important consequences for the phenomenology of the infrared. I will center my discussion around a conception of quantum gravity involving a notion of quantum spacetime that arises in metastring theory. This theory allows for an...

In a cubic cosmological simulation box with three-dimensional periodicity, we determine the gravitational potential and force generated by a single particle. Using both the Newtonian approximation and Yukawa law of gravity within the cosmic screening approach [1,2], we zoom into the regions in the box where the distinction among them becomes significant. Extending the analysis to corresponding...

This talk describes how the Barbero--Immirzi parameter deforms the SL(2,R) symmetries on a null surface boundary. Our starting point is the definition of the action and its boundary terms. We introduce the covariant phase space and explain how the Holst term alters the symmetries on a null surface. This alteration only affects the algebra of the edge modes on a cross-section of the null...

Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) probes cosmic phenomena at the highest angular resolution in astronomy, with the present record set at about 10 microsecond of arc. This record is achieved in space VLBI (SVLBI) observations of the Russian-led RadioAstron mission which combined a worldwide array of radio telescopes with a 10-m antenna in orbit around the Earth. Continuing on the path of...

We give a lower bound for the ADM mass of 3-dimensional asymptotically flat initial data sets for the Einstein equations. The bound is given in terms of linear growth `spacetime harmonic functions' in addition to the energy-momentum density of matter fields, and is valid regardless of whether the dominant energy condition holds or whether the data possess a boundary. A corollary is a new proof...

Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are energetic transients originating in a violent explosion of a massive star or merger of two compact objects. These explosions create relativistic blastwave whose expansion leads to external shocks. The emission thus produced is the afterglow observed in

GRBs after the prompt emission. The properties of the emitting region i.e. non-thermal

particle spectrum,...

Can a dynamically robust bosonic star (BS) produce an (effective) shadow that mimics that of a black hole (BH)? The BH shadow is linked to the existence of light rings (LRs). For free bosonic fields, yielding mini-BSs, it is known that these stars can become ultra-compact - i.e., possess LRs - but only for perturbatively unstable solutions. We show this remains the case even when different...

Cosmological and astronomical observations indicate that the majority

of mass and energy density of fields in the universe are in a form

which interacts extremely weakly, if at all, with light. The standard

interpretation is the existence of dark matter, commonly thought to be

in the form of particles not part of the standard model of particle

physics. At present a firm detection of such...

GW170817 was detected 3.4 years ago as the first object to have both a gravitational wave and an EM counterpart. It provided the first confirmation of the connection between short gamma-ray bursts and binary neutron star mergers. For almost 3 years, the broadband EM observations of GW170817 from radio to X-rays showed a very well-behaved simple power-law spectrum, with no spectral evolution....

Multi-messenger detections allow us to learn more about the astrophysical sources by probing different physics and also by guiding the astronomers more precisely with low latency follow-ups. We will present the statistically optimal methods for multi-messenger searches and summarize the joint gravitational-wave and high energy neutrino event searches' results of Low Latency Algorithm for...

The Unruh De-Witt detector was introduced originally to give an operational meaning to particle detection in curved spacetimes. This simple two level quantum system interacts with the quantum field through a monopole type coupling, possibly exciting it to the excited state in the process. As the vacuum state of the field depends on global features of the background spacetime, the transition...

We study exact solutions of infinite derivative gravity within the class of so-called almost universal spacetimes. For such an ansatz, the field equations reduce to a single non-local but linear equation which is exactly solvable with the ghost-free choice $\exp(-\ell^2 \Box)$ of the non-local form factor by eigenfunction expansion or using the heat kernel method. This procedure allows us to...

Although the observed GRB prompt emission spectrum is well constrained, the underlying radiation mechanism is not very well understood. We have explored photospheric emission in GRB jets by modelling the Comptonization of fast cooled synchrotron photons whilst the electrons and protons are accelerated to highly relativistic energies by repeated energy dissipation events as well as Coulomb...

We present results from adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulations of global cosmic strings. Using the public code, GRChombo, we perform a quantitative investigation of the dynamics of single sinusoidally displaced string configurations. We study a wide range of string energy densities $\mu \propto \ln{\lambda}$, defined by the string width parameter $\lambda$ over two orders of magnitude. We...

According to several observational evidences, the Hot Big Bang Model is the best framework in which to explain the origin and the evolution of the universe. By the way, it is still not the definitive model. Among its weaknesses, we have to count the lack of a satisfying explanation of how baryons and dark matter formed. In this article we attempt to describe these phenomena through a new...

The precise value of Hubble's constant has become one of the most interesting cosmological tensions in recent years. Measurements of H_0 with Type Ia supernovae, in a series of papers by Reiss et al., use a distance ladder of parallax and Cepheid variable stars, and find a value of H_0 which is significantly higher than expected in a LCDM cosmology with Planck CMB parameters. In this work,...

In the last years, thanks to the increased precision of the measurements of the Hubble constant, H0, some tension has emerged between measurements from local and early-Universe probes. Strong gravitational (SL) lenses with measured time delays between the multiple images are yielding a competitive approach to estimate H0, that is independent and complementary to other techniques. Such studies...

We show that loop quantization leads to the emergence of defocusing terms in the expansion and its rate of change, the Raychaudhuri equation. These terms are suppressed in the region far from the singularity but dominate close to that region and prevent both the expansion and its rate from diverging everywhere inside the black hole. This in turn signals the disappearance of the caustic points...

When two Neutron Stars (NSs) merge a multi-band electromagnetic (EM) emission, known as Kilonova (KN), follows. It is believed to be powered by the radioactive decay of ejecta products. In this contribution we discuss how future measurements of KN light curves and spectra could constrain some interesting features of the NSs in the coalescing binary. In particular we will focus on the impact...

In this work we investigate neutron stars (NS) in f (R, T ) gravity

for the case R + 2λT , R is the Ricci scalar, and T the trace of the

energy-momentum tensor. The hydrostatic equilibrium equations are

solved considering realistic equations of state (EOS). The NS masses

and radii obtained are subject to a joint constrain from massive pulsars

and the event GW170817. The parameter λ needs...

I review the arguments supporting the idea that there is an information puzzle in black holes physics. Namely that unitarity is conflicting with local quantum field theory and the equivalence principle. I show that these arguments rely on speculative extra assumptions, justified only by faith in specific hypothesis on quantum gravity. Therefore the black hole information puzzle a problem only...

A millisecond periodicity in the signal of fast radio bursts (FRBs) has long been searched for, as such a signal could be present if these sources are rapidly rotating neutron stars. Here we report a periodic separation of 218 ms at a 6-sigma significance in the single components of a 3-s long FRB detected by the CHIME/FRB experiment. With its nine or more single components, this FRB...

Collapsed structures, or halos, formed in models with self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) have unique properties that distinguish them from structures formed in cold dark matter (CDM). In particular, momentum and energy exchange inside SIDM halos drives the formation of a central core that may eventually undergo core collapse, such that the halo becomes extremely centrally concentrated. We...

My goal in this talk is to address some of the fundamental mathematical questions in the field of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics. This is an area that has witnessed progress within the physics community but for which many foundational mathematical questions remain open. Some of these problems, such as the study of causality, local well-posedness and breakdown of solutions, are...

GRMHD simulations have been very successful in interpreting observations from M87*. However, they are unable to account for several important features, such as the plasma loading of the jet or the details of non-thermal radiation, from first principles. Kinetic simulations, on the other hand, are well suited to the task. In this talk, I will review what we have learned from these kinetic...

The precedented multi-messenger campaign launch by the gravitational wave (GW) signal GW170817 and the quasi-simultaneous gamma-ray burst GRB170817A, enabled the study of the various transient counterparts, over different energy bands and timescales, and confirmed for the first time, the hypothesis that binary neutron starts are the progenitor of at least a sub-sample of short GRBs, among many...

I will present constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r using Planck data as described in [Tristram et al., A&A, 647, A128 (2021)].

In this paper, we use the latest release of Planck maps (PR4), processed with the NPIPE code, which produces calibrated frequency maps in temperature and polarisation for all Planck channels from 30 GHz to 857 GHz using the same pipeline. We computed...

Black holes power many of the most powerful sources in the universe through their disks, jets and winds. They are powered by their rotational energy (Nature) and by the gravitational energy of accreting gas and stars (Nurture). The balance of these two modes and their implications, will be re-examined in the light of recent, remarkable observations of the nearby galaxy M87 by the Event Horizon...

Gravitationally bound structures composed by fermions and scalar particles known as fermion-boson stars are regular and static configurations obtained by solving the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon-Euler (EKGE) system. As it happens for boson stars, there are different families of solutions labelled by the number of nodes in the radial profile of the scalar field; the ground state solutions have...

Fast X-ray Transients (FXRTs) are as-yet unexplained phenomena. They are energetic X-ray flares that last a few tens to a few thousand seconds. Over the past few years, $\sim$30 extragalactic FXRTs have been discovered in Chandra, XMM-Newton, Swift/XRT and eROSITA data. Numerous proposed explanations include a tidal disruption (TDE) of a white dwarf (WD) by an intermediate-mass black hole...

A kilonova signal is generally expected after a Black Hole - Neutron Star merger. The strength of the signal is related to the Equation of State of neutron star matter and it increases with the stiffness of the latter. The recent results obtained by NICER suggest a rather stiff Equation of State and the expected kilonova signal is therefore strong, at least if the mass of the Black Hole does...

A. Perez Martinez^{1T}, M. A. Perez-Garcia^{1(∗)}, E. Rodriguez Querts^{2} and A. Romero Jorge^{2}

Vacuum in presence of magnetic field exhibits birrefrigence. We have obtained this effect from linear correction of dispersion relation of photon travelling perpendicular to the magnetic field valid even for magnetic fields close to...

I will discuss the status of our understanding of singularities in general relativistic spacetimes. I will cover briefly their definition, location, and existence, while focusing on their classical and quantum nature. I will emphasize what we know, and what we do not know about the effect of test particles and waves on a zoo of singularities, from quasiregular to nonscalar curvature to scalar...

Long gamma-ray bursts are associated with the core-collapse of massive, rapidly spinning stars. However, the believed efficient angular momentum transport in stellar interiors leads to predominantly slowly-spinning stellar cores. In this talk, I will report on binary stellar evolution and population synthesis calculations, showing that tidal interactions in close binaries not only can explain...

Revolutionary progress is underway in the ability to detect CP-violating electric dipole moments (EDMs) of particles such as the electron and proton. I will describe recent searches for the electron EDM that are already sensitive to new physics at scales around 10 TeV. I will also discuss new techniques projected to soon enable orders of magnitude further improvement in the field.

Dark energy might be in charge of the late-time acceleration of the universe, but not only so. Many quintessence models possess scaling or attractor solutions where the fraction of dark energy follows the one of the dominant component in previous epochs of the universe’s expansion. Hence, they could play a role in some physical processes at redshifts z>>O(1). For instance, the presence of a...

In traditional (Dirac quantized) quantum mechanics, Gaussian wave functions play an important role in understanding semi-classicality: they may be chosen to be as sharply-peaked around classical position coordinates and they saturate the uncertainty relation, thereby minimizing quantum fluctuations. Gaussian states may likewise be constructed on the kinematic volume Hilbert space of loop...

Gravitational lensing of fast radio bursts (FRBs) on timescales of nanoseconds to milliseconds is sensitive to the presence of massive bodies up to $100 M_{\odot}$--including brown dwarves, rogue stars, and exotic objects like MACHOs or primordial black holes. The CHIME telescope, a widefield low-frequency radio interferometer operating over the frequency range of 400-800 MHz, detects several...

The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors are now observing large numbers of gravitational-wave signals from compact binary coalescences, with 50 entries in the latest transient catalogue GWTC-2. The next detector upgrades will continue bringing rapidly growing event rates and redshift range, so our chances become better both to detect rare astrophysical effects on these novel cosmic...

We study the gravitational field of ultrarelativistic spinning objects (gyratons) in a modified gravity theory with higher derivatives. In particular, we focus on a special class of such theories with an infinite number of derivatives known as “ghost-free gravity” that include a nonlocal form factor such as exp(-\Box\ell^2), where \ell is the scale of nonlocality. First, we obtain solutions of...

Magnetic reconnection in current sheets is conjectured to power bright TeV flares from the black hole in the center of the M87 Galaxy. It is unclear how, where, and when current sheets form in black-hole accretion flows. We show extreme resolution 3D general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics and 2D general-relativistic particle-in-cell simulations to model reconnection and plasmoid formation...

The Lambda-Cold Dark Matter ($\Lambda$CDM) model agrees with most of the cosmological observations, but has some hindrances from observed data at smaller scales such as galaxies. Recently, Berezhiani and Khoury proposed a new theory involving interacting superfluid dark matter with three model parameters in \cite{khoury2015}, which explains galactic dynamics with great accuracy. In the present...

The rich EM phenomenology in the first few hours after a compact object merger encodes the nature of the post-merger remnant, and a wide array of other compelling physics. Unfortunately, the requirement to find, and classify a counterpart within the large GW localization regions before followup with sensitive instruments can begin, excludes access to these first few hours, even for the most...

In this talk, we discuss the existence of a static, spherically symmetric spacetime that is the solution of the Einstein field equations coupled with an electric field obeying the equations of electromagnetism of Maxwell-Bopp-Lande-Thomas-Podolsky for a static point charge. Contrary to what happens with the Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime, it is shown that the electric field energy is finite,...

The high-z submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) can be used as background sample for gravitational lensing studies thanks to their magnification bias (Gonzalez-Nuevo et al. 2017), which can manifest itself through a non-negligible measurement of the cross-correlation function between a background and a foreground source sample with non-overlapping redshift distributions. In particular, the choice of...

The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) telescope has detected more than 1,000 fast radio bursts (FRBs) with its dedicated transient-search backend (CHIME/FRB). With the goal of localising 1,000 bursts to ~50mas precision in less than two years, CHIME/FRB is now expanding to include a dedicated very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array of transcontinental outrigger...

In this contribution we identify two scenarios for the evolutionary branch cut universe. In the first scenario, the universe evolves continuously from the negative complex cosmological time sector, prior to a primordial singularity, to the positive one, circumventing continuously a branch cut, and no primordial singularity occurs in the imaginary sector, only branch points. In the second...

GRB 170817A was markedly dissimilar to any other detected short gamma-ray burst as it was observed off-axis. This was further made evident by the information gained from the accompanying observation of GW170817. The event has since sparked discussion into the short gamma-ray burst beam profile and how it can link the observed luminosity of GRB 170817A with the rest of the observed on-axis...

We present the observations of the first unambiguous magnetar giant flare from outside of our galactic neighborhood. Initially, GRB 200415A was identified as a short GRB, but upon further investigation and observations from additional instruments, we concluded this event was a giant flare from a magnetar located in the Sculptor galaxy, 3.5 Mpc away. The GBM lightcurve shows very fast (shorter...

Assuming only the existence of an apparent horizon and its regularity, we derive universal properties of the near-horizon geometry of spherically symmetric black holes. General relativity admits only two distinct classes of physical black holes, and both appear at different stages of the black hole formation. Using a self-consistent semiclassical approach, we find that the resulting...

On one hand, the formalism developed in thermodynamics of spacetime allows a derivation of Einstein equations from the proportionality of entropy to the area. On the other hand, low energy quantum gravity effects imply a modified entropy formula with an additional term logarithmic in the area. Combining both concepts, I will introduce the derivation of quantum modified gravitational dynamics...

Transient gravitational waves from catastrophic collisions of black holes and neutron stars have been observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo in the last few years. Studies are also carried out to look for something different -- the much fainter continuous gravitational radiation emitted by non-axisymmetric spinning neutron stars, or ultralight-boson condensates from spinning black holes. In...

A large fraction of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) lightcurves (LCs) shows X-ray plateaus. We analyze all GRBs with known redshifts presenting plateaus observed by The Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory from its launch until August 2019. The fundamental plane relation between the rest-frame time and X-ray luminosity at the end of the plateau emission and the peak prompt luminosity holds for all the GRB...

About 99 percent of solar energy is produced through sequences of nuclear processes that convert hydrogen into helium in the so-called pp-chain. The neutrinos emitted in five of these reactions represent a unique probe of the Sun’s internal working and, at the same time, offer an intense natural neutrino beam for fundamental physics research.

The Borexino experiment consists of a large-volume...

We consider static and cylindrically symmetric interior string type solutions in the scalar-tensor representation of the hybrid metric-Palatini modified theory of gravity. As a first step in our study,we obtain the gravitational field equations and further simplify the analysis by imposing Lorentz invariance along the t and z axes, which reduces the number of unknown metric tensor components...

Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are known to arise from distinct progenitor channels: short GRBs mostly from neutron star mergers and long GRBs from a rare type of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) called collapsars. Highly magnetized neutron stars called magnetars also generate energetic, short-duration gamma-ray transients called Magnetar Giant Flares (MGFs). Three have been observed from...

Since its inception, the Bekenstein-Hawking area relation for black-hole entropy has been the primary testing ground for various theories of quantum gravity. However, a key challenge to such theories is identifying the microscopic structures and explaining the exponential growth of microstates, providing a fundamental understanding of thermodynamic quantities. Since entropy is a single number,...

Solar neutrinos provide a sample of electron neutrinos of different energies. They are therefore a unique probe of the electron neutrino propagation through solar matter and for the experimental study of the MSW effect. Borexino, with its unique purity and sensitivity, has been able to study individually all components, extracting the best test of electron neutrino survival probability to...

We take on an extensive study of the rotating hairy Kerr black holes, which encompasses, in particular cases, the Kerr black hole ($\alpha=0$). We investigate ergosphere and shadows of the black holes to infer that their size and shape are affected due to the $l_0$ and are found to harbour a richer chaotic structure. In particular, the hairy Kerr black holes possess smaller size but more...

Neutron-star mergers and their remnants are fascinating both as laboratories for physics at high energies and densities and because of their likely importance for the production of heavy elements. There are several approaches to observing these mergers. First, we can locate the EM counterparts of neutron-star GW events. This was spectacularly successful with GW170817, but despite huge efforts...

We study the effect of compact extra dimensions on the gravitational wave luminosity and waveform. We consider a toy model, with a compactified fifth dimension, and matter confined on a brane. We work in the context of five dimensional (5d) general relativity, though we do make connections with the corresponding Kaluza-Klein effective 4d theory. We show that the luminosity of gravitational...

The giant flares of soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) have long been proposed to contribute to at least a subsample of the observed short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We performed a comprehensive analysis of the high-energy data of the bright short GRB 200415A, which was located close to the Sculptor galaxy. Our results suggest that a magnetar giant flare provides the most natural explanation for...

Theories predict continuous gravitational waves may be emitted by rotating neutron stars. We present the results of three wide-band directed searches for continuous gravitational waves from young supernova remnants in the first half of the third Advanced LIGO and Virgo observing run. Using three complementary analysis pipelines, we search fifteen young supernova remnants between 10 Hz and 2...

We perform optial follow-up observations of transients such as gravitational

wave signals and fast radio bursts with the Subaru telescope/Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC),

which is a wide field camera with a field of view of 1.7deg2. The Subaru/HSC

has the highest light collecting power in unit time among all optical telescopes

currently in operation. In this presentation, I will introduce our...

We provide a prescription to compute the gravitational multipole moments of compact objects for asymptotically de Sitter spacetimes. Our prescription builds upon a recent definition of the gravitational multipole moments in terms of Noether charges associated to specific vector fields, within the residual harmonic gauge, dubbed multipole symmetries. We first derive the multipole symmetries for...

We study hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation, based on the GADGET-3 code, and investigate supermassive black hole binaries coalescence at $5.5

Borexino recently detect solar neutrinos from the CNO cycle.

In the talk I will review the experiment, the analysis method, the CNO result and its implications.

After the groundbreaking gravitational wave detections of compact binary mergers, core-collapse supernova explosions of massive stars have come into focus as one of the next big challenges for gravitational wave astronomy. Thanks to increasingly mature simulations, our understanding of the expected time-frequency structure of the core-collapse supernova gravitational wave signal has advanced...

Einstein equations projected on Black Hole horizons give rise to the equations of motion of a viscous fluid. This suggests a way to understand the microscopic degrees of freedom on the Black Holehorizon by focusing on the physics of this fluid. In this talk, we shall approach this problem by building a crude microscopic model for the Horizon-fluid(HF) corresponding to asymptotically flat Black...

Primordial black hole (PBH) is a kind of important Dark Matter candidate of cosmological origin. And it is also a potential seed of supermassive black holes. However, the formation and the astrophysical effects of PBH still remain unclear. From theoretical perspective, the speaker and his collaborators proposed sound speed resonance （SSR） mechanism as an efficient novel effect to produce PBH....

Relativistic protons, at the forward external shock of a GRB relativistic blast wave (RBW) become unstable to converting their energy dynamically into e+e- pairs through the emission of synchrotron radiation by these e+e-pairs when their column density becomes higher than a critical value given by $n R \sigma \Gamma^4 \simeq 2$ ($n$ is the ambient density, $R$ the shock radius, $\Gamma$ the...

The LISA detectability of GWs from supermassive black hole mergers will crucially depend on the physical properties of their host galaxies.

In this talk I will present a semi-analytic galaxy formation model, Delphi, that fully tracks the accretion- and merger-driven hierarchical assembly of the dark matter halo, gas, stellar, and black hole masses of high-redshift (z > 5) galaxies. We...

The direct detection of gravitational wave (GW) from binary black hole (BBH) mergers has set a strong evidence for the general theory of relativity. These observations have enabled researchers to look for various aspects of black hole spacetimes; Gravitational wave memory (GW-memory) is one of such physical effects which has not been detected yet. The GW-memory manifests a permanent...

General Relativity is an extremely successful theory, at least for weak gravitational fields, however, it breaks down at very high energies, such as in correspondence of the initial singularity. Quantum Gravity is expected to provide more physical insights concerning this open question. Indeed, one alternative scenario to the Big Bang, that manages to completely avoid the singularity, is...

The detection of neutrinos produced by pp-chain and CNO-cycle provide us fundamental informations on the thermal stratification and on the chemical composition of the solar core.

These can be used to verify the predictions ot the so-called Standard Solar Models (SSMs), which represent a benchmark for stellar evolution, and to constrain standard and non/standard energy generation and...

We present the current state of the art of observational properties of

the class of ultra-long GRBs and discuss of any potential method to

classify them as ultra-long while the prompt emission is still active.

We also discuss their detectability in light of the new experiments

currently planned.

Hawking radiation remains a crucial theoretical prediction of semi-classical gravity and is considered one of the critical tests for a model of quantum gravity. However, Hawking’s original derivation used quantum field theory on a fixed background. Efforts have been made to include the space-time fluctuations arising from the quantization of the dynamical degrees of freedom of gravity itself...

Core-collapse supernovae are fascinating astrophysical objects for multimessenger studies. Gravitational waves (GWs) are expected to play a role in the supernova explosion mechanism, but their modelling is also challenging due to the stochastic nature of the dynamics and the vast possible progenitors, and moreover, the GW detection from these objects is still elusive with the already advanced...

In 2034, within the rapidly changing landscape of gravitational-wave astronomy, the Laser interferometer Space Antenna will be the first space-based detector that will observe the gravitational spectra in the millihertz frequency band. It has recently been proposed that numerous LIGO/VIRGO sources will also be detectable by LISA. LISA will be able to detect binary black holes from our Milky...

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are among the brightest and most energetic events in the universe. The duration and hardness distribution of GRBs has two clusters, now understood to reflect (at least) two different progenitors. Short-hard GRBs (SGRBs; T90 <2 s) arise from compact binary mergers, while long-soft GRBs (LGRBs; T90 >2 s) have been attributed to the collapse of peculiar massive stars...

The Covariant Canonical Gauge theory of Gravity is generalized by including at the Lagrangian level all possible quadratic curvature invariants. In this approach, the covariant Hamiltonian principle and the canonical transformation framework are applied to derive a Palatini type gauge theory of gravity. The metric gµν, the

affine connection γλµν and their respective conjugate momenta, kµνσ...

A large fraction of gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves (LCs) exhibit plateaus in their afterglow. Since GRBs phenomena are panchromatic in nature, emitting wavelengths from X-ray to radio, there is opportunity to study GRBs along multiple electromagnetic regimes. In this work, we further investigate more than 130 GRBs that show optical plateaus in their LCs. We confirm the two-dimensional...

Accretion mechanism is one of the most efficient processes by which gravitational potential energy of matter can be converted into energy. This phenomenon provides us with an explanation regarding the huge amount of energy liberated and high luminosities observed in AGN's, X-ray binaries, etc. Therefore, modelling these accretion flows are necessary to obtain a proper picture of the system and...

The CNO cycle consists of a series of nuclear reactions that provide energy in stars. There exist multiple different cycles depending on temperature and relative abundance of elements in stars. In the Sun the CNO cycle is a catalyst cycle where nuclear reactions cycle through carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Initially, a free proton fuses with a carbon-12 nucleus starting a sequence of reactions...

The detection of gravitational waves from core-collapse supernova explosions is a challenging task, yet to be achieved, in which it is key the connection between multiple messengers, including neutrinos and electromagnetic signals. We present a method for detecting these kind of signals based on machine learning techniques. We tested its robustness by injecting signals in the real noise data...

We investigate radial Rindler trajectories in a Schwarzschild spacetime. We assume the trajectory to remain linearly uniformly accelerated (LUA) throughout its motion, in the sense of the curved spacetime generalisation of the Letaw-Frenet equations. For the Schwarzschild spacetime, we arrive at a bound on the magnitude of the acceleration $|a|$ for radially inward moving trajectories, in...

On 26th August 2020,gamma-ray burst monitor onboard Fermi satellite was triggered by an unprecedented genuinely short burst GRB 200826A which is totally different from either of the previous strange ones. The undoubtedly short duration and its proximity, together with large f parameter, prove its genuine short-duration fact. For more metrics, we immediately exploit the prompt and afterglow...

This abstract is primarily based on my recent papers ApJ 909 (2021) 65 and ApJ 896 (2020) 69.

After predicting many sub- and super-Chandrasekhar limiting mass white dwarfs from the observations of peculiar type Ia supernovae, researchers have proposed various models to explain these two classes of white dwarfs separately. We showed that these two peculiar classes of white dwarfs, along with...

Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow emission can be observed from sub-TeV energies to radio wavelengths, though radio afterglows are less common. We examine GRB radio light curves to look for the presence of radio plateaus, resembling the plateaus observed in X-ray and optical light curves. We analyze all published GRBs with observed radio afterglow and fit 64 radio light curves with the broken...

From the theory of the multiverse cosmology，it is possible that our universe collides with other universes locally in its history，which may result in local changes of the curvature of the spacetime．In this paper，we propose a method to probe the multiverse using gravitational wave observations for the first time．Our method firstly makes triangles using two detected gravitational wave sources...

The problem of calculating of redshift of electromagnetic spectrum of the star, moving in the vicinity of Schwarzschild black hole is solved in the framework of General Theory of Relativity. The inverse problem: determining of the parameters of motion of a star from observational data of redshift is considered. The approach that gives possibilities to solve the inverse problem is proposed. The...

We describe an action principle, within the framework of the Eddington gravity, which incorporates the matter fields in a simple manner. Interestingly, the gravitational field equations derived from this action is identical to Einstein’s equations, in contrast with the earlier attempts in the literature. The cosmological constant arises as an integration constant in this approach. In fact, the...

Geoneutrino observation is reviewed.

The latest data of KamLAND and Borexino are included as well as the prospects of

near future experiments.

I will first define the stochastic gravitational-wave background (SGWB) and highlight the method we are using to detect it in the presence of correlated magnetic noise. I will then discuss astrophysical and cosmological sources and report on the current constraints imposed from a non-detection during the first three observing runs of the LIGO/Virgo/KAGRA collaboration. I will also address the...

We propose a possible model of explaining recently discovered short GRB 200826A, unifying this event and normal long GRBs from collapsars. The turbulent nature of relativistic jets is responsible for inhomogeneity, resulting in a lot of patchy emission regions in the jet. If such an emission patch is viewed, a short single pulse is observed, while the usual long GRBs are observed when...

The future spaceborne gravitational wave detector LISA will probe a vast array of gravitational wave sources in the millihertz frequency band. Many of these sources will not be individually resolvable, instead adding incoherently to form stochastic gravitational wave backgrounds or foregrounds. The angular structure of these stochastic signals on the sky can be used to understand the spatial...

Cosmological models and the values of their related parameters are widely debated, due to tension in the results obtained by Planck measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Radiation in the early universe, and Supernovae Type Ia (SNe Ia) data within the late universe. Therefore, we must also consider high-redshift cosmological probes to properly reconstruct a chronological cosmos...

We consider inflationary scenarios of the supersymmetric quantum cosmology of FRLW models with a scalar field. We use the superfield formalism with a superpotential for the scalar superfield. From the probability amplitude solution of the supersymmetric Wheeler-DeWitt equation, we compute an effective probability density from which we get mean trajectories that are parametrized by the scalar....

When two black holes merge, the late stage of gravitational wave emission is a superposition of exponentially damped sinusoids. According to the black hole no-hair theorem, this ringdown spectrum depends only on the mass and angular momentum of the final black hole. An observation of more than one ringdown mode can test this fundamental prediction of general relativity. Here we provide strong...

Astrophysical neutrinos cover at least 18 orders of magnitude in energy, starting from meV (relic neutrinos) till PeV, the highest energy neutrinos ever detected as of today. Among the possible extraterrestrial sources of antineutrinos are the supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, neutron and black hole mergers and solar flares. In the Sun, the conversion of solar neutrinos into...

Close white dwarf binaries within our galaxy are promising sources of gravitational wave signals for Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). While the majority of such systems are expected to have circular orbits, a small portion of those formed through dynamical channels can have significant eccentricities. Analyzing the gravitational wave signals from these systems requires accurate...

Some particle physics models with an additional U(1) gauge interaction are interesting because those address the origin of neutrino masses. We show that, in a wide class of models, such an extra U(1) gauge symmetry breaking in the early universe can be first-order phase transition and hence generate a detectable amplitude of stochastic gravitational wave radiation in future experiments. We...

Recently, ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, such as MAGIC and H.E.S.S., have reported the detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-rays from three gamma-ray bursts (GRB 180720B, 190114C, 190829A). One of them, GRB 190829A, was triggered by the Swift satellite, and about 20000 s after the burst onset the VHE gamma-ray emission was detected by H.E.S.S. with ~ 5 sigma...

A large fraction of gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) lightcurves (LCs) show X-ray plateaus. We analyze all GRBs with known redshifts presenting plateaus observed by The Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory from its launch until 2019 August. The fundamental plane relation between the rest-frame time and X-ray luminosity at the end of the plateau emission and the peak prompt luminosity holds for all the GRB...

A new type of man-made experiment is precomputed and suggested to enforce the evidence base for general relativity (GR) as the Solar system gravity. We present a detailed analytical and numerical descriptions of a space-probe flight from the Earth towards Venus with Venus’ gravity assist (GA) accelerating the probe to return it to the Earth’s orbit. We demonstrate that any planet’s GA is...

A complete census of baryons in the late universe is a long-standing challenge due to the intermediate temperate and rarefied character of the majority of cosmic gas. To gain insight into this problem, we extract measurements of the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect from the cross-correlation of angular redshift fluctuations, a novel probe that contains precise information about the...

AMS-02 is a magnetic spectrometer operating on the ISS since May 2011. Its large acceptance and long exposure time allows to measure the fluxes of all the nuclear species in cosmic rays up to Iron. I will discuss the most recent AMS-02 measurements of primary and secondary nuclei in cosmic rays and their possible contribution to the understanding of the CR acceleration and propagation in the galaxy.

We study asymptotically flat black holes with massive graviton hair within the ghost-free bigravity theory. There have been contradictory statements in the literature about their existence, but we have been able to construct such solutions within a carefully designed numerical scheme. The masses of stable hairy black holes that would be physically relevant range form stellar values up to...

The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory is a new-generation multi-component instrument for TeV-PeV gamma rays and TeV-EeV cosmic rays. Recently, LHAASO has published its first result on the discovery of 12 ultrahigh-energy (E>100TeV) gamma-ray sources at more than 7 sigma confidence level. Among them, there are famous sources like the Crab Nebula, the Cygnus Cocoon, as well as new...

The Mikhail Pavlinsky ART-XC telescope is the hard X-ray instrument with grazing incidence imaging optics on board the SRG observatory which successively works in the orbit from July 2019. The ART-XC telescope is designed to provide the first ever true imaging all-sky survey in the 4-30 keV energy band and to study spectral and timing characteristics of X-ray sources. The review of scientific...

The planet-size network of millimeter antennas Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has recently delivered images of the surroundings of the supermassive compact object M87* at the center of the galaxy Messier 87. Such images are crucial to better understand the physics at play in a strong gravitational field environment. They might also allow to probe the extreme relativistic effects on the...

In this talk the zoo of the High Mass X-ray Binary

Systems (HMXBs) is presented. Among these I will discuss the X-ray/Be systems and

in particular A0535 + 26/HDE245770. Through the multifrequency

experimental data obtained in long observation campaigns it was

possible to develop a particular model for the aforementioned system

and then a general one that explains the delay between...

We estimate the neutrino emission from the decay chain of the $\pi$-meson and $\mu$-lepton, produced by proton-proton inelastic scattering in energetic ($E_{\rm iso}\geq 10^{52}$ erg) long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), within the type I binary-driven hypernova (BdHN) model. The BdHN I progenitor is a binary system composed of a carbon-oxygen star (CO$_{\rm core}$) and a neutron star (NS) companion....

We place observational constraints on two models within a class of scenarios featuring an elastic interaction between

dark energy and dark matter that only produces momentum exchange up to first order in cosmological perturbations. The first one corresponds to a perfect-fluid model of the dark components with an explicit interacting Lagrangian, where dark energy acts as a dark radiation at...

One of the most ubiquitous features of quantum theories is the existence of zero-point fluctuations in their ground states. For massive quantum fields, these fluctuations decouple from infrared observables in ordinary field theories. However, there is no "decoupling theorem" in Quantum Gravity, and we recently showed that the vacuum stress fluctuations of massive quantum fields source a red...

The cosmological constant is usually associated with the notion of vacuum energy density in quantum field theory (QFT). Whether $\Lambda$ is a rigid quantity or a dynamical variable has been a matter of debate for many years, especially after the introduction of the general notion of dark energy (DE). In an expanding universe one may expect that $\Lambda$, and the corresponding vacuum...

considering the asymmetric thin-shell wormhole (ATSW) model, we find that the impact parameter of the null geodesics is discontinuous through the wormhole in general and hence we identify novel shadows whose sizes are dependent of the photon sphere in the other side of the spacetime. Furthermore, we shoe evident additional photon rings from the ATSW spacetime. Moreover, a potential lensing...

We explore the phenomenological viability of scenarios, suggested by different approaches to quantum spacetime, where quantum-gravity effects in the propagation of particles are triggered by spacetime curvature/expansion.

We rely on a toy model of curvature-induced Lorentz violation for a preliminary exploration, and we find that, differently from what commonly believed, the double...

The quasi-static approximation (QSA) is a useful tool to get a quick and clear physical understanding of the phenomenology of modified gravity which is encoded in two functions (of scale and time): the effective gravitational constant (describing the modified evolution of matter perturbations) and the slip (parametrizing the relations between the two gravitational potentials). This...

We are using information from a paper deriving a Lorentz-violating energy-momentum relation entailing an exact momentum cutoff as stated by G. Salesi . Salesi in his work allegedly defines Pre Planckian physics, whereas we restrict our given application to GW generation and DE formation in the first 10^-39s to 10^-33s or so seconds in the early universe. This procedure is inacted due to an...

Interaction between the standard model matter and low mass scalar dark matter field may be presented as variation of the fundamental constant while interaction with an axion-like field leads to oscillating effects of violation of the fundamental symmetries including electric dipole moments. New interactions mediated by hypothetical particles produce effects, which may be observed in atomic...

We quantize the two-dimensional projectable Horava-Lifshitz gravity with a bi-local as well as space-like wormhole interaction. The resulting quantum Hamiltonian coincides with the one obtained through summing over all genus in the string field theory for two-dimensional causal dynamical triangulations. This implies that our wormhole interaction can be interpreted as a splitting or joining...

Abstract not provided.

We reduplicate the Book “Dark Energy” by M. Li, X-D. Li, and Y. Wang, given zero-point energy calculation with an unexpected “length’ added to the ‘width’ of a graviton wave just prior to specifying the creation of ‘gravitons’, using the Rosen and Israelit model of a nonsingular universe. In doing so we are in addition to obtaining a wavelength 10^30 times greater than Planck’s length so we...

Lensing by wormholes has been explored by several authors and the demagnification effect has been found as a distinctive signature which is not present in lensing from ordinary matter.

We study compact objects made up by ordinary and exotic matter in binary systems with $1/r^n$ potentials, where $n=2$ corresponds to the Ellis wormhole, both in the symmetric case, where the two lenses have the...

We applied the conformal dilaton gravity model on a BTZ-like black hole spacetime in five dimensions using the warped Randall-Sundrum-1 variant.

We find exact $(t,r)$-dependent solutions for the dilaton field and the metric components, written as $g_{\mu\nu}=\omega^{\frac{4}{n-2}}\tilde g_{\mu\nu}$, from the 5D Einstein equations, as well as from the induced 4D Einstein equations on the...

We consider the possibility that the Milky Way’s dark matter halo possesses a non-vanishing equation of state. Consequently, we evaluate the contribution due to the speed of sound, assuming that the dark matter content of the galaxy behaves like a fluid with pressure. In particular, in the galactic core we compare two scenarios: a supermassive black hole in vacuum and a dark...

We discuss a generalised form of an emergent dark energy model with one degree of freedom for the dark energy sector that has the flexibility to include both ΛCDM model as well as the Phenomenologically Emergent Dark Energy (PEDE) model proposed by Li & Shafieloo (2019) as two of its special limits. The free parameter for the dark energy sector, namely Δ, has the value of 0 for the case of the...

We study the shadow cast by rotating black holes surrounded by plasma in the context of the novel 4D Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravity. The metric for these black holes results from applying the Newman-Janis algorithm to a spherically symmetric solution. We obtain the contour of the shadow for a plasma frequency model that allows a separable Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We introduce three...

Photon-graviton conversion in a magnetic field is a process that is usually studied at tree level, but the one-loop corrections due to scalars and spinors have also been calculated. Differently from the tree-level process, at one-loop one finds the amplitude to depend on the photon polarization, leading to dichroism. However, previous calculations overlooked a tadpole contribution of the type...

We present the results of synchronous multiwave observations of the intrinsic gamma and optical radiation of the long GRB160625B gamma-ray burst by the MASTER Global Network, the Lomonosov Gamma-Observatory and the Konus-Wind gamma detector. We see traces of quasiperiodic optical pulsations of the intrinsic optical radiation on scales of several tens of seconds. We associate quasiperiodic...

A recently proposed Dynamical Space-time Cosmology (DSC) that unifies dark

energy and dark matter is studied. The general action of this scenario includes a Lagrange

multiplier, which is coupled to the energy momentum tensor and a scalar field which is different

from quintessence. First for various types of potentials we implement a critical point analysis

and we find solutions which lead...

As gravitational waves are now being nearly routinely measured with interferometers, the question

of using them to probe new physics becomes increasingly legitimate. In this article, we rely on a

well established framework to investigate how the complex frequencies of quasinormal modes are

affected by different models. The tendencies are explicitly shown for both the pulsation and...

The CALorimetric Electron Telescope CALET is collecting science data on the International Space Station since October 2015 with excellent and continuous performance. Energy is measured with a deep homogeneous calorimeter (1.2 nuclear interaction lengths, 27 radiation lengths) preceded by an imaging pre- shower (3 radiation lengths, 1mm granularity) providing tracking and 10$^{-5}$...

We investigate a autonomous system analysis in terms of new expansion-normalized variables for homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi-I spacetimes in $f(R)$ gravity in the presence of anisotropic matter. It is demonstrated that with a suitable choice of the evolution parameter, the Einstein's equations are reduced to an autonomous 5-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations for the...

We study Quantum Gravity effects in cosmology, and in particular that of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle on the Friedmann equations. We show that the Quantum Gravity induced variations of the energy density and pressure in the radiation dominated era provide a viable explanation of the observed baryon asymmetry in the Universe.

We discuss the stability and appearance of an asymmetric thin-shell wormhole supported by positive energy sources within the Palatini f(R) gravity. Such object is build using a matching procedure of two Reissner-Nordström space-times with different masses and charges via suitable junction conditions.

The eROSITA Final Equatorial-Depth Survey (eFEDS) carried out during the Performance Verification phase of the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma/eROSITA telescope is designed to provide the first eROSITA-selected sample of clusters and groups and to test the predictions for the all-sky survey in the context of cosmological studies with clusters of galaxies. I will present the first results on groups and...

It is generally believed that General Relativity (GR) is of secondary importance in the explosion of core-collapse supernovae (CCSN). However, as 3D simulations are becoming more and more detailed, GR effects can be strong enough to change the hydrodynamics of the supernova and affect the explosion. Since a 3D simulation in full GR is computationally extremely challenging, it is valuable to...

Recently, a diffuse emission of 1-100 GeV gamma-rays has been detected from the direction of M31, extending up to ~ 200 kpc from its center.

The interpretation of the extended gamma-ray emission by the escape of cosmic rays produced in the galactic disk or in the galactic center is problematic.

Here we argue that a cosmic ray origin (either leptonic or hadronic) of the gamma-ray emission...

In this work we present our latest results using photonic, atomic, and mechanical oscillators to undertake experimental searches for dark matter and tests of fundamental physics. First, we will focus on our recent results on searching for scalar dark matter through frequency comparisons, due to oscillations in fundamental constants [1]. Next we will discuss upconverting low mass axion signals...

The recent results of DAMA/LIBRA–phase2 experiment deep underground at Gran Sasso are presented. The improved experimental configuration with respect to the phase1 allowed a lower software energy threshold. The DAMA/LIBRA–phase2 data confirm the evidence of a signal that meets all the requirements of the model independent Dark Matter annual modulation signature, at high C.L. The model...

The photospheric emission in the prompt emission is the natural prediction

of the original fireball model for gamma-ray burst (GRB) due to the large

optical depth ($\tau >1$) at the base of the outflow, which is supported by

the quasi-thermal components found in several Fermi GRBs. However,

the main origin of the most prompt emission spectrum (photosphere or

synchrotron) is still under...

I will review the current status of primordial black holes and their relation with spectral distortions.

Celebrating the centennial of its first experimental test, the theory of General Relativity (GR) has successfully and consistently passed all subsequent tests with flying colors. It is expected, however, that at certain scales new physics, in particular, in the form of quantum corrections, will emerge, changing some of the predictions of GR, which is a classical theory. In this respect, black...

The dynamic center of our galaxy is known to host a source of TeV gamma rays since the very beginning of the 21st century and a link to the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center has been speculated on ever since. But not only the point-like source, spatially coincident with SgrA*, can be observed from the ground using the Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope technique, but also diffuse...

Wide-field optical sky surveys are discovering a remarkable diversity

in how stars merge, collapse and explode. The powering mechanism for

many of these requires a source beyond radioactivity, plausibly a

magnetic, rapidly spinning neutron star. The discovery of

the electromagnetic counterpart to a pair of merging neutron stars

and other rapid transients from merging binary systems...

High energy laser beams and particle beams, such as the one of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, can be used as lab-scale, relativistic sources of gravitational fields. We present a study of the creation and possibility of detection of oscillating gravitational fields from lab-scale, relativistic sources. Lab-based sources allow for signal frequencies much higher and far narrower in...

Geometric optics approximation is sufficient to describe the effects in the near-Earth environment. In this framework a careful analysis of the local standard polarization directions allows to obtain transparent expressions for polarization rotation. We provide a simple estimation of this emitter/observer-dependent phase and give its explicit form in different settings: 1) Considering the...

In this talk I will review recent progress that the SDSS-IV / eBOSS collaboration has made in constraining cosmology from the clustering of galaxies, quasars and the Lyman-alpha forest. The SDSS-IV / eBOSS collaboration has measured the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) and redshift space distortion (RSD) features in the correlation function in redshift bins from z~0.15 to z~2.33. These...

Scalar-tensor theories leaving significant modifications of gravity at cosmological scales rely on screening mechanisms to recover General Relativity (GR) in high-density regions and pass stringent tests with astrophysical objects. Much focus has been placed on the signatures of such modifications of gravity on the propagation of gravitational waves through cosmological distances while...

It has been known that the zero modes can contribute towards divergence in the entanglement entropy and the nature of the divergent term

can be either log or log(log). However, a clear understanding of what

leads to these two different forms of zero mode divergence is still lacking.

So, in order to throw some light along this direction, I will talk about how

these two different divergent...

In special relativity (SR) and in general relativity, the energy tensors of a charged medium and its electromagnetic field, ${\bf T}_\mathrm{chg}$ and ${\bf T}_\mathrm{field}$, add to give the total energy tensor ${\bf T}$ obeying $T^{\mu \nu }_{\ \, ;\nu}=0$: one has

${\bf T} = {\bf T}_\mathrm{chg} + {\bf T}_\mathrm{field}$. (1)

In the "scalar ether theory of gravitation" (SET),...

The origin of primordial magnetic fields and baryon asymmetry of the Universe are still unresolved issues and require physics beyond the standard models of cosmology and particle physics. Since both require physics beyond the standard model, there is a possibility that the same new physics can solve both.

In this talk, I will discuss our model, where non-minimal coupling to the Riemann...

I will discuss the observational appearance of wormholes if they were observed by a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array such as the Event Horizon Telescope, or some more powerful future VLBI array. Certain properties, like change of the diameter of the critical curve with respect to the Kerr black hole of the same mass are difficult to interpret given typically poor constraints we...

The existence of black holes is one of the key predictions of general relativity (GR) and therefore a basic consistency test for modified theories of gravity. In spherical symmetry, only two classes of GR solutions are compatible with the formation of a regular apparent horizon in finite time of a distant observer. In this talk, I will demonstrate how to derive constraints that any...

The Vector-Tensor theories are a class of alternative theories of gravity that differ from the standard General Relativity (GR) with the presence of a vector field besides the metric. They are studied in attempts to understand spontaneous Lorentz violation, to generate massive gravitons, and as models of dark matter and dark energy. In this talk, I outline how the nature of singularities and...

The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a space mission, promoted by the Chinese Academy of Science with the collaboration of Italian and Swiss scientific institutions. Since December 2015, DAMPE orbits at the altitude of 500 km and collects data regularly. The detector is made of four sub-detectors: top layers of plastic scintillators, a silicon-tungsten tracker converter, a deep BGO...

We propose that the free-free spectrum in the CMB frequency range provides the constraint on the dark matter halo formation in the early universe

and the density fluctuations on small scales.

When dark matter halos form, gas in the dark matter halos can be heated

and ionized depending on their virial temperature.

Although such hot ionized gas is cooled and recombined to the neutral state...

Particle creation by strong and time-varying backgrounds is a robust prediction of quantum field theory. Another well-stablished feature of QFT is that classical symmetries do not always extend to the quantized theory. When this occurs, we speak of quantum anomalies. In this talk we discuss the intwining relationship between both predictions. First, we point out that the particle...

In my talk I shall discuss how big is the parameter space of the couplings at the Planck scale leading to correct non-susy unification for the SO(10). To do so have calculated the renormalisation group equations for the model and run them down towards the IR and investigated the effective potential. As it turns out the initial parameters has to lie in the very small intervals and have a huge...

We follow an old hypothesis that there exists an intimate connection between weak interaction and gravity, symbolized by the relationship between the Fermi and Newton’s constants. We analyze the hypothesis that the effect of matter upon the metric that represents gravitational interaction in General Relativity is an effective one. This leads us to consider gravitation to be the result of the...

It was found recently that the anisotropies in the homogeneous Bianchi~I cosmology considered within the context of a specific Horndeski theory are damped near the initial singularity instead of being amplified. In this work we extend the analysis of this phenomenon to cover the whole of the Horndeski family. We find that the phenomenon is absent in the K-essence and/or Kinetic Gravity...

The hypothetical variation of the fine structure constant alpha can be studied in a laboratory by comparing two exceptionally accurate atomic clocks over a long period of time. It is especially convenient when the two clock transitions, sensitive to the variation of alpha are found in the same atom. We identify two such systems, the neutral ytterbium and gold atoms. The Yb I atom has at least...

We consider the following question: may two different black holes (BHs) cast exactly the same shadow? In spherical symmetry, we show the necessary and sufficient condition for a static BH to be shadow-degenerate with Schwarzschild is that the dominant photonsphere of both has the same impact parameter, when corrected for the (potentially) different redshift of comparable observers in the...

We assume that the progenitor of the Crab nebula and of the Crab pulsar, like GRB 190114C is a binary-driven hyper-novae of type I (BdHNe I). In BdHN I the explosion of the supernova as well as of the role of the hypercritical accretion of the SN ejecta onto the binary companion neutron star (NS) and onto the newbornNS (νNS) have central role. The synchrotron emission powered by the...

The search for dark matter (DM) weakly interacting massive particles with noble elements has probed masses down and below a GeV/c^2. The ultimate limit is represented by the experimental threshold on the energy transfer to the nuclear recoil. Currently, the experimental sensitivity has reached a threshold equivalent to a few ionization electrons. In these conditions, the contribution of a...

There has recently been interest in Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) as a dark matter (DM) candidate. Constraints on the PBH abundance is obtained through lensing, accretion, dynamical effects and also the analysis of the gravitational wave (GW) events. PBHs may exist and populate today the galactic halos with a wide mass range, from about 10-14MSun up to thousands, or more, of solar masses....

Abstract: Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV), as predicted by several quantum gravity models, can manifest in very tiny energy-dependent gradients of light speed in vacuum, dispersing time of flight (ToF) along the path from source to observer for photons of different energy. Despite being suppressed by the Planck energy, LIV effects in the ToF of photons can be amplified by huge cosmological...

Hydrodynamical simulations predict that the cosmic web contains the majority of the missing baryons in the form of plasma, called the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). However, its direct measurement through X-ray emission has been prevented for decades due to the weakness of the signal and to the complex morphology of cosmic filaments.

We identified more than 15,000 large-scale...

"2020 was a special year for magnetar studies. The first simultaneous detection

of an FRB-like radio burst from a Galactic magnetar and its high-energy counterpart

(FRB/SGR 200428) suggests that magnetars can produce FRBs.

Observations of the short γ-ray burst GRB 200415A, associated with a nearby galaxy

and with properties closely resembling the huge initial pulses of magnetar

giant...

The current interests in the universe motivate us to go beyond Einstein's General theory of relativity. One of the interesting proposals comes from a new class of teleparallel gravity named symmetric teleparallel gravity, i.e., $f(Q)$ gravity, where the non-metricity term $Q$ is accountable for fundamental interaction. These alternative modified theories of gravity's vital role are to deal...

In this talk I will show up-to-date cosmological constraints on the interactions between dark matter and the component that might be driving the current acceleration of the universe. In particular, I will explain what is the status of two different theoretical models: (i) coupled quintessence, with a fifth force between dark matter particles, mediated by a scalar field that plays the role of...

Photons propagating through the Universe acquire the effective mass that depends on the local density of free charges. This means that if a light new particle that mixes with photons (e.g. dark photon or axions) exists in Nature, photons can be resonantly converted into such particles at numerous places along a typical line of sight. In particular, this can result in specific distortions both...

As the electron in the hydrogen atom, a bosonic field can bind itself to a black hole occupying a discrete infinite set of states. When (i) the spacetime is prone to superradiance and (ii) a confinement mechanism is present, some of such states are infinitely long–lived. These equilibrium configurations, known as stationary clouds, are states “synchronized” with a rotating black hole's event...

A recently proposed interesting class of black hole mimickers are the so-called "black-bounce" spacetimes. In static spherical symmetry, a candidate spacetime was explored which neatly interpolates between a classical Schwarzschild black hole, a regular black hole, and a traversable wormhole depending on the value of an additional scalar metric parameter. Since this analysis, the discourse...

The cosmic ray all-particles spectrum is a very important result obtained by the NUCLEON space experiment. This spectrum was directly measured up to energies near 500 TeV. The ground-based experiments provide very large statistics but their results depend on applied models. The NUCLEON experiment allows to compare results of direct measurements and data of ground-based experiments. The...

We discuss equilibration process in expanding universes as opposed to the thermalization one in Minkowski space--time. The goal is to answer the question: Does the equilibrium reached before the rapid expansion stops and has negligible effect on the background geometry? Or stress--energy fluxes in a universe of GUT scale curvature have strong effects on the expansion rate and the equilibrium...

Recently the entanglement entropy between universes has been calculated, an entropy which somehow describes the quantumness of a homogeneous multiverse. The third quantization formalism of canonical quantum gravity is used here. I will show improvements of the results in a more general scenario, studying what happens at critical points of the evolution of a classical universe. We infer the...

We look at Viutilli (1999) write up of a generalized schrodinger equation with its Ricci scalar inclusion, in curved space-time. This has a simplified version in Pre Planckian regime, which leads to comparing a resultant admissible wave function with Bohmian reformulations of quantum physics. As was done earlier, we compare this result with a formulation of a modified ‘Poisson’ equation from...

The universe according to the tetron model consists of invisible tiny constituents, elastically bound with bond length about the Planck length and binding energy the Planck energy.

A tetron transforms as the fundamental fermion(=octonion) representation 8 of SO(6,1). With respect to the decomposition SO(6,1)-->SO(3,1)xSO(3) a tetron possesses spin 1/2 and isospin 1/2, i.e. it represents an...

I will present our imaging study of four-dimensional, string-theoretical, horizonless "fuzzball" geometries. Their microstructure traps light rays straying near the would-be horizon on long-lived, highly redshifted chaotic orbits. In fuzzballs sufficiently near the scaling limit this creates a shadow much like that of a black hole, while avoiding the paradoxes associated with an event horizon....

Lomonosov Moscow State University Universat-SOCRAT program is aimed at using small satellites to monitor space threats

These satellites are equipped with instruments for space radiation monitoring, as well asprototypes of devices for observing transient phenomena in the Earth’s atmosphere.

In particular, two satellites are equipped with scintillation phosphich detectors that detect...

The consistency between the cosmic expansion and growth may hold clues about the nature of the acceleration of the Universe. Using model-independent methods, we reconstruct the growth history from redshift-space distortion and deduce the corresponding expansion history, which we test against supernovae data. Motivated by these results, we then introduce a model of two-component dark energy...

Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) are a class of black holes with masses in the range 10^2-10^5 solar masses, which can not directly derive from stellar evolution. Looking for these objects and estimating their abundance is important for understanding the nature and distribution of the Dark Matter in the galactic halo. Since February 2018 to January 2020 the LMC and SMC have been...

The Tunka Advanced Instrument for Gamma-ray and cosmic ray Astrophysics (TAIGA) is a hybrid experiment for the measurement of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) with good spectral resolution in the TeV to PeV energy range. In this domain, the long-sought Pevatrons can be detected. Currently the hybrid TAIGA detector combines two wide angle shower front Cherenkov light sampling timing arrays (HiSCORE...

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is a powerful probe to the Universe which carries signatures of cosmic secrets over a vast range of redshifts. Along with spatial fluctuations, spectral distortions of CMB blackbody are also a rich source of cosmological information. In my talk, I will introduce a new kind of spectral distortion of CMB which can arise due to the conversion of CMB photons into...

From a phenomenological point of view, the singularities of ordinary black hole solutions hint at a breakdown of general relativity. The Bardeen black hole is a prototype of regular black hole solutions, i.e. those which are geodesically complete and avoid a curvature singularity.

The Bardeen solution is generally interpreted as a magnetically or electrically charged solution to gravity...

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly variable and exhibit strong spectral evolution. In particular, the emission properties vary from pulse to pulse in multipulse bursts. Here we present a time-resolved Bayesian spectral analysis of a compilation of GRB pulses observed by the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor. The pulses are selected to have at least four time bins with a high statistical...

In this work, we explore the existence of traversable wormhole solutions supported by double-layer thin-shells and satisfying the Null Energy Condition (NEC) throughout the whole spacetime, in a quadratic form of the generalized hybrid metric-Palatini gravity. We start by showing that for a particular quadratic form of the action, some of the junction conditions of the theory can be discarded...

Quasinormal modes of massless test scalar field in the background of gravitational field for a non-extremal dilatonic dyonic black hole are explored. The dyon-like black hole solution is considered in the gravitational $4d$ model involving two scalar fields and two 2-forms. It is governed by two 2-dimensional dilatonic coupling vectors $\vec{\lambda}_i$ obeying $\vec{\lambda}_i...

A clock in a higher place ticks faster than one in a lower place in accordance with Einstein’s general relativity. A pair of atomic clocks serve as a quantum sensor for the gravitational potential. The relativistic effects of the 450-meter height difference of a broadcasting tower, Tokyo Skytree, were measured using a pair of optical lattice clocks to verify the general theory of relativity....

Dark Matter particle candidates able to induce nuclear recoils can be

also studied using the so-called directionality technique. This approach is

based on studying the correlation between the nuclear recoils direction and

the Earth motion in the galactic rest frame.

Several experimental techniques to explore the directionality approach

have been proposed. In this talk, a review of such...

In this talk, I’ll discuss ideas for new approaches in the hunt for light dark matter was gas-based detectors. I’ll show that the sensitivity that may be achievable through the process of electron ionisation of gas targets in a Spherical Proportional Counter in very promising, going beyond current exclusion limits. I'll also pay particular attention to the potential benefits of molecular gas targets.

Both QCD and EW eras play essential roles in laying seeds for nucleosynthesis and even dictating the cosmological large-scale structure. Taking advantage of recent developments in ultrarelativistic nuclear experiments and nonperturbativ and perturbative lattice simulations, various thermodynamic quantities including pressure, energy density, bulk viscosity, relaxation time, and temperature...